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Abbreviation: IR
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Long forms: 1158

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
insulin resistance
(6066 times)
Endocrinology
(1264 times)
HOMA-IR (810 times)
BMI (776 times)
PCOS (603 times)
1982 Insulin resistance developing in children with IDDM.
infrared
(4441 times)
Chemistry
(1129 times)
NMR (243 times)
UV (214 times)
XRD (156 times)
1967 Chemical and physical properties of isomeric glyceryl monoethers.
ischemia-reperfusion
(3326 times)
General Surgery
(373 times)
MDA (270 times)
ROS (181 times)
SOD (171 times)
1988 Rate of reperfusion blood flow modulates reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle.
ionizing radiation
(3261 times)
Neoplasms
(968 times)
DSBs (250 times)
DSB (175 times)
ATM (164 times)
1977 The values of alpha 2-macroglobulin in the serum of persons at work with x-rays.
immunoreactivity
(2910 times)
Neurology
(1100 times)
SP (224 times)
CGRP (216 times)
TH (195 times)
1975 Differential in vivo pulmonary degradation of prostaglandins E1, B1, and A1.
insulin receptor
(1781 times)
Biochemistry
(399 times)
IRS-1 (179 times)
IGF-1R (131 times)
IRS (120 times)
1984 Insulin receptors in cultured human keratinocytes.
inverted repeat
(979 times)
Molecular Biology
(130 times)
LSC (571 times)
SSC (563 times)
cp (165 times)
1981 Physical characterization of Bacteroides fragilis R plasmid pBF4.
immediate-release
(934 times)
Pharmacology
(365 times)
ER (218 times)
CR (104 times)
SR (104 times)
1984 [Chronic asthma in children: comparison between a delayed-action theophylline preparation and a prompt-release aminophylline preparation].
incidence rate
(923 times)
Medicine
(90 times)
CI (204 times)
IRR (112 times)
HR (79 times)
1983 Estimation of incidence of human leukaemia subtypes in an urban African population.
10  infrared spectroscopy
(614 times)
Chemistry
(147 times)
XRD (153 times)
SEM (144 times)
DSC (88 times)
1975 Investigations into the determination of the cytotoxicity of quartz dust by physical methods.
11  interventional radiology
(565 times)
Radiology
(294 times)
CT (23 times)
OR (19 times)
DR (16 times)
1994 Advances in interventional radiology in oncology.
12  iterative reconstruction
(401 times)
Radiology
(224 times)
FBP (230 times)
CT (135 times)
CNR (82 times)
2001 Scintimammography: better detection of small-sized lesions with tomoscintigraphic than planar images, a phantom study.
13  inversion recovery
(389 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(189 times)
SE (73 times)
MR (60 times)
MRI (54 times)
1982 Clinical NMR imaging of the brain: 140 cases.
14  irradiation
(367 times)
Neoplasms
(113 times)
ROS (22 times)
DSBs (16 times)
DDR (13 times)
1981 Lymphopoiesis in the chicken pineal gland.
15  internal rotation
(347 times)
Sports Medicine
(134 times)
ER (243 times)
ROM (114 times)
ACL (22 times)
1994 Comparative measurements of anterior tibial translation using the KT-1000 knee arthrometer with the leg in neutral, internal rotation, and external rotation.
16  intermediate risk
(193 times)
Neoplasms
(91 times)
HR (119 times)
LR (77 times)
ALL (36 times)
1987 A population-based study of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia diagnosed from July 1981 through June 1985 in the five Nordic countries. Incidence, patient characteristics and treatment results.
17  implantation rate
(159 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(91 times)
CPR (66 times)
LBR (42 times)
PR (42 times)
1991 Embryo implantation rates in stimulated and hormonal replacement cycles: uterine versus tubal transfers.
18  internal
(145 times)
General Surgery
(30 times)
ER (71 times)
ROM (18 times)
SR (16 times)
1975 The growth characteristics of the metastatic Wistar/Furth Wilms' tumor model.
19  infrared spectra
(127 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(26 times)
XRD (21 times)
NMR (18 times)
TEM (15 times)
1987 Abuse of smoking methamphetamine mixed with tobacco: I. Inhalation efficiency and pyrolysis products of methamphetamine.
20  mid-infrared
(99 times)
Ophthalmology
(35 times)
FTIR (9 times)
PCA (6 times)
NIR (5 times)
1996 Quantitation of cefepime.2HCl dihydrate in cefepime.2HCl monohydrate by diffuse reflectance IR and powder X-ray diffraction techniques.
21  information retrieval
(94 times)
Medical Informatics
(66 times)
NLP (13 times)
QA (6 times)
EHRs (4 times)
1992 New role of a medical documentation system.
22  interquartile range
(89 times)
Endocrinology
(10 times)
CI (8 times)
BMI (4 times)
OR (3 times)
1986 Functional capacity and treatment data from a community based study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
23  near-infrared
(86 times)
Ophthalmology
(18 times)
UV (8 times)
PSII (3 times)
QDs (3 times)
1991 Near-infrared Fourier transform Raman and conventional Raman studies of calf gamma-crystallins in the lyophilized state and in solution.
24  inferior rectus
(81 times)
Ophthalmology
(55 times)
SR (32 times)
MR (25 times)
LR (24 times)
1979 Horizontal canal input to cat extraocular motoneurons.
25  intron retention
(81 times)
Genetics
(16 times)
AS (30 times)
ES (6 times)
AD (3 times)
2007 Sequence features responsible for intron retention in human.
26  infrared radiation
(70 times)
Dermatology
(16 times)
NMR (4 times)
UV (4 times)
ESI-MS (2 times)
1982 Intensification of ultraviolet-induced dermal damage by infrared radiation.
27  intergenic region
(67 times)
Virology
(23 times)
TYLCV (10 times)
PCR (9 times)
CP (7 times)
1979 Construction of an M13 histidine-transducing phage: a single-stranded cloning vehicle with one EcoRI site.
28  incomplete revascularization
(65 times)
Cardiology
(46 times)
CR (50 times)
PCI (21 times)
MVD (16 times)
1991 [Clinical evaluation of incomplete PTCA revascularization efficacy].
29  inadequate response
(45 times)
Rheumatology
(22 times)
RA (23 times)
MTX (10 times)
TNFi (10 times)
1995 Inadequate response to H2-receptor antagonists. Absence of parietal cell cAMP-stimulating autoantibodies.
30  intermediate
(45 times)
Neoplasms
(9 times)
HR (17 times)
SR (8 times)
HPA (6 times)
1992 Evaluation of elastic structural change in coronary atherosclerosis using scanning acoustic microscopy.
31  infrared reflectance
(44 times)
Ophthalmology
(27 times)
SD-OCT (21 times)
FAF (17 times)
RPD (8 times)
1983 The assessment of smooth tracking dysfunction.
32  imidazoline receptor
(39 times)
Pharmacology
(14 times)
Agm (5 times)
alpha2-AR (4 times)
APA (3 times)
1992 Isolation and characterization of imidazoline receptor protein from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.
33  immune reconstitution
(39 times)
Hematology
(12 times)
NK (10 times)
GVHD (8 times)
HCT (8 times)
2001 Long-term clinical benefit after highly active antiretroviral therapy in advanced HIV-1 infection, even in patients without immune reconstitution.
34  gamma-irradiation
(38 times)
Neoplasms
(15 times)
ATM (6 times)
HR (4 times)
PTX (4 times)
1998 Cytokine rescue of p53-dependent apoptosis and cell cycle arrest is mediated by distinct Jak kinase signaling pathways.
35  Infra-red
(38 times)
Chemistry
(5 times)
NMR (6 times)
UV (6 times)
SEM (5 times)
1975 [Thermoreceptor function of the stretch receptors of the river crayfish].
36  inverted repeat regions
(36 times)
DNA, Mitochondrial
(6 times)
LSC (27 times)
SSC (26 times)
cp (8 times)
1994 Physical map of the plastid genome of the unicellular red alga Cyanidium caldarium strain RK-1.
37  ionotropic receptor
(32 times)
Genetics
(12 times)
OR (19 times)
Gr (14 times)
OBP (12 times)
2010 Acid sensing by the Drosophila olfactory system.
38  identification rate
(30 times)
Neoplasms
(15 times)
FNR (19 times)
SLNB (19 times)
NAC (8 times)
2005 Meta-analysis of sentinel lymph node biopsy after preoperative chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer.
39  induced resistance
(30 times)
Botany
(9 times)
CR (4 times)
JA (3 times)
ABA (2 times)
1992 In-vitro activities of 14-, 15- and 16-membered macrolides against gram-positive cocci.
40  incomplete response
(29 times)
Neoplasms
(10 times)
CR (17 times)
GCT (5 times)
ER (4 times)
1991 Salvage chemotherapy for patients with germ cell tumors. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience (1979-1989).
41  irradiated
(29 times)
Neoplasms
(7 times)
MDA (3 times)
CAPE (2 times)
MPO (2 times)
1985 Acceleration of neoplasms of reticular tissue with syngeneic thymic graft under renal capsule and gamma radiation.
42  inpatient rehabilitation
(28 times)
Rehabilitation
(12 times)
FIM (5 times)
TBI (5 times)
LTC (4 times)
2003 The relationship of Injury Severity Score and Glasgow Coma Score to rehabilitative potential in patients suffering traumatic brain injury.
43  isolation rearing
(24 times)
Brain
(10 times)
PPI (10 times)
DA (5 times)
MA (5 times)
2004 Serotonin fibre densities in subcortical areas: differential effects of isolated rearing and methamphetamine.
44  implementation research
(23 times)
Health Services Research
(6 times)
LMICs (3 times)
PMTCT (2 times)
AHPSR (1 time)
2014 Prioritizing the PMTCT implementation research agenda in 3 African countries: INtegrating and Scaling up PMTCT through Implementation REsearch (INSPIRE).
45  index of reactivity
(23 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(18 times)
HDM (6 times)
SLIT (6 times)
AEs (3 times)
1995 Evaluation of a composite scoring system in conjunctival challenge with allergen: reproducibility and evolution during loratadine treatment.
46  infrared absorption
(23 times)
Chemistry
(14 times)
VCD (11 times)
DFT (4 times)
ROA (2 times)
1987 Determination of total body water by deuterium NMR.
47  idiopathic rhinitis
(22 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(12 times)
AR (7 times)
NHR (3 times)
SP (3 times)
2000 Idiopathic and allergic rhinitis show a similar inflammatory response
48  imagery rescripting
(22 times)
Psychiatry
(12 times)
IE (6 times)
PTSD (4 times)
SAD (4 times)
2011 Adding imagery rescripting during extinction leads to less ABA renewal.
49  immediate reconstruction
(22 times)
General Surgery
(12 times)
DR (4 times)
NAC (4 times)
PMRT (4 times)
1996 [Expansion in breast surgery].
50  intrinsic religiosity
(21 times)
Psychiatry
(6 times)
ORA (5 times)
DUREL (4 times)
OR (3 times)
2003 Religiosity and mental health in southern, community-dwelling older adults.
51  ischemia followed by reperfusion
(21 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
IPC (3 times)
AMI (2 times)
MI (2 times)
2002 Effect of ischemic preconditioning on hepatic microcirculation and function in a rat model of ischemia reperfusion injury.
52  improvement rate
(20 times)
Orthopedics
(8 times)
JOA (9 times)
CSF (3 times)
MRI (3 times)
1995 Low back pain outcome measurement assessment in chiropractic teaching clinics: responsiveness and applicability of two functional disability questionnaires.
53  inactive renin
(20 times)
Metabolism
(5 times)
AR (12 times)
PRA (5 times)
TR (5 times)
1980 Inactive renin and prostaglandin E2 production in hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism.
54  infrared absorption spectroscopy
(20 times)
Chemistry
(4 times)
XRD (8 times)
SEM (6 times)
DSC (5 times)
1999 Preparation, characterization, and evaluation of physicochemical properties of different crystalline forms of ibuprofen.
55  infusion rate
(20 times)
Endocrinology
(5 times)
MR (6 times)
BG (4 times)
AA (1 time)
1986 Extremity amino acid metabolism during starvation and intravenous refeeding in humans.
56  infusion reactions
(20 times)
Rheumatology
(4 times)
IFX (5 times)
IBD (3 times)
ATI (2 times)
2004 Human antichimeric antibody in children and young adults with inflammatory bowel disease receiving infliximab.
57  injury rate
(20 times)
Sports Medicine
(12 times)
AE (4 times)
IRR (3 times)
NFL (3 times)
1989 Ammonia-induced injury in pure cultures and natural populations of coliform bacteria.
58  input resistance
(20 times)
Brain
(3 times)
GM (5 times)
RMP (4 times)
HT (3 times)
1996 Blockade of dopamine storage, but not of dopamine synthesis, prevents activation of a tolbutamide-sensitive K+ channel in the guinea-pig substantia nigra.
59  insulin resistance index
(20 times)
Endocrinology
(4 times)
BMI (10 times)
HOMA (4 times)
T2DM (4 times)
1999 Homeostasis model assessment as a clinical index of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients treated with sulfonylureas.
60  impedance ratio
(19 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(5 times)
EIT (5 times)
PA (5 times)
ARF (2 times)
1999 Evaluation of electrical impedance tomography in the measurement of PEEP-induced changes in lung volume.
61  insecticide resistance
(19 times)
Tropical Medicine
(8 times)
IS (4 times)
kdr (4 times)
AChE (2 times)
1991 Variation of spontaneous and induced mitotic recombination in different Drosophila populations: a pilot study on the effects of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in six newly constructed tester strains.
62  inwardly rectifying
(19 times)
Physiology
(11 times)
OR (5 times)
4-AP (2 times)
DIDS (2 times)
1990 Membrane currents in hippocampal neurons.
63  inflammatory response
(18 times)
Cardiology
(3 times)
CPB (3 times)
CRP (2 times)
TA (2 times)
2001 Innate immunity and inflammation: a transcriptional paradigm.
64  immediate response
(17 times)
Endocrinology
(3 times)
NR (4 times)
HR (3 times)
ER (2 times)
1986 [Factors modifying late bronchial response in the bronchial provocation test in asthmatic children].
65  initiation region
(17 times)
Biochemistry
(5 times)
MAR (9 times)
DMs (2 times)
HSR (2 times)
1990 A sequence pattern that occurs at the transcription initiation region of yeast RNA polymerase II promoters.
66  image registration
(16 times)
Medical Informatics
(6 times)
AMD (2 times)
CNN (2 times)
IGRT (2 times)
2003 Attenuation correction of PET activation studies in the presence of task-related motion.
67  inhibitory receptors
(16 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(6 times)
NK (3 times)
TIL (3 times)
CAR (2 times)
1998 Phosphoantigen activation induces surface translocation of intracellular CD94/NKG2A class I receptor on CD94- peripheral Vgamma9 Vdelta2 T cells but not on CD94- thymic or mature gammadelta T cell clones.
68  indirect revascularization
(15 times)
Vascular Diseases
(13 times)
DR (13 times)
CLI (4 times)
CI (3 times)
2012 Factors influencing wound healing of critical ischaemic foot after bypass surgery: is the angiosome important in selecting bypass target artery?
69  intentional replantation
(15 times)
Dentistry
(11 times)
CBCT (1 time)
CSCTDs (1 time)
EMD (1 time)
1995 Intentional replantation: a case study.
70  incomplete repair
(14 times)
Neoplasms
(9 times)
NTCP (2 times)
CSI (1 time)
EBRT (1 time)
1985 An 'incomplete-repair' model for survival after fractionated and continuous irradiations.
71  infrared light
(14 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(4 times)
RF (2 times)
VL (2 times)
AL (1 time)
1986 Comparison of amplification systems in a classroom.
72  gamma-ionizing radiation
(13 times)
Neoplasms
(5 times)
EMT (4 times)
NSCLC (4 times)
ROS (4 times)
2004 Modifications in cell cycle kinetics and in expression of G1 phase-regulating proteins in human amniotic cells after exposure to electromagnetic fields and ionizing radiation.
73  implant removal
(13 times)
Orthopedics
(4 times)
CS (2 times)
AIS (1 time)
AO/OTA (1 time)
1992 Luteal function and reproductive response in suckled beef cows after metestrus administration of a norgestomet implant and injection of estradiol valerate with various dosages of injectable norgestomet.
74  immediate recall
(12 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
DR (10 times)
FR (2 times)
SM (2 times)
2000 APOE-epsilon4 is associated with memory decline in cognitively impaired elderly.
75  inferior rectus muscle
(12 times)
Ophthalmology
(5 times)
IO (5 times)
MR (4 times)
SR (4 times)
1988 Axonal trajectories of posterior canal-activated secondary vestibular neurons and their coactivation of extraocular and neck flexor motoneurons in the cat.
76  infrared ray
(12 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
E. coli (2 times)
ROS (2 times)
UV (2 times)
1999 Labeled carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies excitable by infrared rays: a novel diagnostic method for micro cancers in the digestive tract.
77  illegitimate recombination
(11 times)
Genetics
(3 times)
HR (4 times)
bp (1 time)
DIR (1 time)
1999 Enhanced gene replacement in mycobacteria.
78  image reconstruction
(11 times)
Radiology
(3 times)
FBP (7 times)
CT (3 times)
ASIR (2 times)
2002 Image restoration using the chiral Potts spin glass.
79  immediate reaction
(11 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(5 times)
LPR (3 times)
AR (2 times)
DR (2 times)
1996 Pharmacological characterisation of a new model of antigen-induced pulmonary late-phase reaction in the conscious guinea pig which uses additional polymyxin B inhalation.
80  impulse radio
(11 times)
Biosensing Techniques
(4 times)
UWB (5 times)
WBAN (2 times)
ATC (1 time)
2009 4 Gbps impulse radio (IR) ultra-wideband (UWB) transmission over 100 meters multi mode fiber with 4 meters wireless transmission.
81  resistance index
(11 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(2 times)
AO (1 time)
authors transl (1 time)
CPAb (1 time)
1980 [Measurement of carotid diastolic flow by ultrasonography using the Doppler effect, and its value in diagnosis (authors transl)].
82  incomplete resection
(10 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
CR (4 times)
OS (4 times)
CI (3 times)
1989 The improvement of systolic function of depressed left ventricle by external vibration at diastole.
83  increased risk
(10 times)
Cardiology
(2 times)
OPTN (2 times)
SR (2 times)
ALL (1 time)
1981 Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Swedish children 1973-1978.
84  insulin release
(10 times)
Endocrinology
(6 times)
2-KIC (1 time)
AA (1 time)
ACh (1 time)
1979 The prostaglandins system and insulin release. Studies with the isolated perfused rat pancreas.
85  intracoronary radiation
(10 times)
Cardiology
(7 times)
IA (6 times)
BI (3 times)
AA (2 times)
1999 Effects of intracoronary radiation on thrombosis after balloon overstretch injury in the porcine model.
86  inverted repeat sequences
(10 times)
Molecular Biology
(3 times)
A/T (1 time)
DR (1 time)
EHV-1 (1 time)
1985 G inversion in bacteriophage Mu DNA is stimulated by a site within the invertase gene and a host factor.
87  iron replete
(10 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
ID (8 times)
IDA (4 times)
SF (2 times)
2003 Evaluation of serum ferritin in screening for iron deficiency in tuberculosis.
88  isotope ratio
(10 times)
Biochemistry
(3 times)
LS-APGD (2 times)
aFT (1 time)
AP (1 time)
1985 Evaluation of isotope ratio (IR) mass spectrometry for the study of drug metabolism.
89  hydroxylase-immunoreactive
(9 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
ARC (2 times)
BDNF (2 times)
CGRP (2 times)
1998 Alterations in mystacial pad innervation in the aged rat.
90  immunological responders
(9 times)
Communicable Diseases
(3 times)
InR (5 times)
ART (3 times)
VR (3 times)
2002 Correlations of soluble interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor type II receptors with immunologic and virologic responses under HAART.
91  increased
(9 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
CI (2 times)
ACC (1 time)
CBF (1 time)
1999 A role for inwardly rectifying K+ channels in differentiation of NG108-15 neuroblastoma x glioma cells.
92  indeterminate response
(9 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
ER (4 times)
CR (3 times)
SIR (3 times)
1993 Wheezing triggered by dorsal decubitus: pulmonary function changes.
93  infrared analysis
(9 times)
Pharmacology
(4 times)
DSC (4 times)
HPLC (4 times)
XRD (4 times)
1993 Partial least-squares regression for routine analysis of urinary calculus composition with Fourier transform infrared analysis.
94  inner retina
(9 times)
Ophthalmology
(3 times)
OR (5 times)
SD-OCT (3 times)
TR (3 times)
2003 Spontaneous waves in the ventricular zone of developing mammalian retina.
95  integration region
(9 times)
Ophthalmology
(2 times)
C/B (1 time)
COVID-19 (1 time)
DCLP (1 time)
1998 The spatial region of integration for visual symmetry detection.
96  intensity ratio
(9 times)
Psychiatry
(2 times)
MCMC (3 times)
AC (2 times)
IACT (2 times)
1993 Evaluating coronary reperfusion during acute myocardial infarction in a canine model by gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.
97  internal repeat
(9 times)
Virology
(4 times)
EBV (3 times)
TR (3 times)
aa (1 time)
1985 Evidence that respiratory tract is major reservoir for Epstein-Barr virus.
98  interpersonal relations
(9 times)
Rehabilitation
(2 times)
GHD (2 times)
ABI (1 time)
AK (1 time)
1981 Inpatient male alcoholics: predicting program completion time in days and characteristics of fast and slow completers.
99  ileal resection
(8 times)
Gastroenterology
(6 times)
CD (4 times)
BAD (2 times)
Ab (1 time)
1978 Evidence for excessive absorption of oxalate by the colon in enteric hyperoxaluria.
100  immunoreactive cells
(8 times)
Histology
(2 times)
BPH (1 time)
CCK (1 time)
CREB (1 time)
1987 Plasma relaxin levels in pregnant and lactating dogs.