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Abbreviation: IS
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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
internal standard
(2294 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(1270 times)
MRM (429 times)
LLOQ (273 times)
ESI (190 times)
1981 Gas/liquid chromatographic analysis of pemoline in biological fluids using electron capture detection.
ischemic stroke
(2127 times)
Neurology
(603 times)
CI (209 times)
ICH (205 times)
TIA (165 times)
1986 Headache in acute cerebrovascular disease.
infarct size
(613 times)
Cardiology
(307 times)
AAR (89 times)
STEMI (88 times)
CMR (63 times)
1976 [Precordial mapping and enzymatic analysis for estimating infarct size in man. A comparative study (author's transl)].
insertion sequence
(595 times)
Microbiology
(195 times)
ORFs (24 times)
RFLP (24 times)
PCR (21 times)
1975 Occurrence of insertion sequence (IS) regions on plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid as direct and inverted nucleotide sequence duplications.
immunosuppression
(522 times)
Transplantation
(170 times)
LT (47 times)
TAC (24 times)
MMF (23 times)
1976 Regulation of the immune response to tumor antigens. II. The nature of immunosuppressor cells in tumor-bearing hosts.
insulin sensitivity
(490 times)
Endocrinology
(171 times)
IR (188 times)
BMI (59 times)
OGTT (47 times)
1993 Metabolic predictors of obesity: cross-sectional versus longitudinal data.
indoxyl sulfate
(434 times)
Nephrology
(103 times)
CKD (196 times)
PCS (131 times)
HD (39 times)
1988 Displacement by anionic drugs of endogenous ligands bound to albumin in uremic serum.
idiopathic scoliosis
(286 times)
Orthopedics
(103 times)
CS (13 times)
PSF (12 times)
AIS (7 times)
1983 Abnormalities of aggregation, thromboxane A2 synthesis, and 14C serotonin release in platelets of patients with idiopathic scoliosis.
immunological synapse
(280 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(101 times)
TCR (65 times)
APC (38 times)
APCs (24 times)
2001 Vav1/Rac-dependent actin cytoskeleton reorganization is required for lipid raft clustering in T cells.
10  infantile spasms
(257 times)
Neurology
(161 times)
ACTH (40 times)
EEG (28 times)
VGB (22 times)
1977 Genetic study of infantile spasm with hypsarrhythmia.
11  induced sputum
(225 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(87 times)
BAL (37 times)
COPD (21 times)
EBC (17 times)
1992 Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in HIV-infected patients: diagnostic yield of induced sputum and immunofluorescent stain with monoclonal antibodies.
12  ionic strength
(222 times)
Environmental Health
(142 times)
DLVO (24 times)
GO (14 times)
HA (14 times)
1987 Phosphate inhibition of protein-polysilicic acid complex formation in vitro: a factor in preventing silica urolithiasis.
13  International Standard
(174 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(45 times)
WHO (56 times)
EDQM (31 times)
IU (29 times)
1975 [Glass, rubber and plastic material for production of the transfusion and infusion solutions equipment].
14  information systems
(131 times)
Medical Informatics
(76 times)
IT (9 times)
HIS (8 times)
PLS (5 times)
1982 Medical and administrative information modelling of a hospital university centre pneumology department.
15  immune synapse
(86 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(24 times)
TCR (22 times)
APC (10 times)
MTOC (9 times)
2002 Cutting edge: dynamic redistribution of tetraspanin CD81 at the central zone of the immune synapse in both T lymphocytes and APC.
16  impedance spectroscopy
(81 times)
Chemistry
(18 times)
SEM (7 times)
XPS (6 times)
AFM (4 times)
1992 Impedance spectroscopy.
17  inescapable shock
(81 times)
Neurology
(23 times)
DRN (12 times)
ES (10 times)
LH (7 times)
1986 Interaction of Pavlovian conditioning with a zero operant contingency: chronic exposure to signaled inescapable shock maintains learned helplessness effects.
18  inner segment
(80 times)
Ophthalmology
(39 times)
OS (58 times)
ONL (17 times)
SD-OCT (17 times)
1989 Functional and structural characteristics of photoreceptor cells rescued in RPE-cell grafted retinas of RCS dystrophic rats.
19  incentive spirometry
(73 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(19 times)
CABG (8 times)
IPPB (6 times)
CI (5 times)
1977 Intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) versus incentive spirometer (IS) therapy in the postoperative period.
20  inflammatory soup
(58 times)
Neurology
(30 times)
CGRP (11 times)
CM (7 times)
TNC (7 times)
1990 Low dose dopamine protects against hemorrhagic pancreatitis in cats.
21  immunoscintigraphy
(57 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(20 times)
CT (12 times)
CEA (9 times)
mAb (7 times)
1984 [Immunoscintigraphy with emission tomography in cancers of the thyroid].
22  iron sucrose
(57 times)
Nephrology
(14 times)
FCM (26 times)
IDA (13 times)
Hb (9 times)
2005 Hypersensitivity reactions and deaths associated with intravenous iron preparations.
23  International Scale
(55 times)
Neoplasms
(20 times)
CML (33 times)
MMR (12 times)
MR (10 times)
2008 Desirable performance characteristics for BCR-ABL measurement on an international reporting scale to allow consistent interpretation of individual patient response and comparison of response rates between clinical trials.
24  infraspinatus
(54 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(13 times)
SS (20 times)
BF (13 times)
PM (9 times)
1993 Quality attributes of major porcine muscles: A comparison with the Longissimus Lumborum.
25  immune system
(53 times)
Medicine
(6 times)
CNS (7 times)
LPS (4 times)
IL (3 times)
1986 Sequential and parallel regulation of immune system reactivity.
26  implementation science
(50 times)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
(6 times)
QI (4 times)
PRISM (3 times)
CDS (2 times)
2008 Behind the scenes in health care improvement: the complex structures and emergent strategies of Implementation Science.
27  initial segment
(50 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(12 times)
SD (14 times)
MPs (3 times)
TEA (3 times)
1973 An electrophysiological dissection of the hypothalamic regions which regulate the pre-ovulatory secretion of luteinizing hormone in the rat.
28  immobilization stress
(48 times)
Neurology
(14 times)
PS (5 times)
CS (4 times)
SWS (4 times)
1984 [Testicular endocrine function in hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) during chronic emotional stress].
29  intussusception
(45 times)
Pediatrics
(14 times)
RV (9 times)
RVGE (4 times)
ACE (3 times)
2003 Rotavirus vaccines--an update.
30  Insall-Salvati
(41 times)
Orthopedics
(28 times)
BP (25 times)
CD (19 times)
MIS (11 times)
1998 A comparison of three methods for measuring patella malalignment in children.
31  interdaily stability
(36 times)
Physiology
(13 times)
RA (16 times)
BMI (5 times)
RAR (5 times)
2002 Age-associated difference in circadian sleep-wake and rest-activity rhythms.
32  iron-sufficient
(36 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(11 times)
ID (23 times)
IDA (13 times)
pnd (5 times)
1979 Inhibition of rat hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 system by cobaltous chloride and reversal of inhibition by iron in vivo.
33  isotonic saline
(36 times)
Medicine
(6 times)
HS (19 times)
CF (5 times)
CI (3 times)
1977 Effect of hypertonic urea and mannitol on distal nephron permeability.
34  ischemic
(35 times)
Medicine
(8 times)
HS (7 times)
mRS (6 times)
ICH (5 times)
1977 Spatial and nonspatial influences on the TG-ST segment deflection of ischemia. Theoretical and experimental analysis in the pig.
35  isthmic spondylolisthesis
(35 times)
Orthopedics
(11 times)
PLIF (12 times)
VAS (12 times)
ODI (10 times)
2005 Long-term outcome in 132 consecutive patients after posterior internal fixation and fusion for Grade I and II isthmic spondylolisthesis.
36  intermediate segment
(33 times)
Neurology
(6 times)
PS (4 times)
ROM (4 times)
ACDF (3 times)
1989 Timing of operation for ruptured supratentorial aneurysms: a prospective randomized study.
37  insulin secretion
(32 times)
Endocrinology
(14 times)
IR (11 times)
IGT (4 times)
HOMA (3 times)
1998 [The influence of clinical presentation and metabolic control of insulin dependent diabetes in the evolution of residual insulin secretion. A prospective study at five years].
38  immunoscore
(31 times)
Neoplasms
(19 times)
OS (14 times)
DFS (5 times)
TILs (5 times)
2015 The predictive value of centre tumour CD8⁺ T cells in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison with Immunoscore.
39  immunosuppressive therapy
(27 times)
Hematology
(9 times)
SAA (11 times)
BMT (5 times)
AA (3 times)
1983 Treatment of severe aplastic anemia with sequential immunosuppression.
40  interoceptive sensibility
(26 times)
Psychiatry
(4 times)
MAIA (6 times)
IA (4 times)
AN (2 times)
2014 How much time has passed? Ask your heart.
41  insistence on sameness
(24 times)
Psychiatry
(14 times)
ASD (12 times)
RRBs (8 times)
ADI-R (7 times)
2003 Fine mapping of autistic disorder to chromosome 15q11-q13 by use of phenotypic subtypes.
42  immunoreactive substance
(23 times)
Biochemistry
(17 times)
CGRP (9 times)
VIP (6 times)
ACTH (5 times)
2002 Hange-shashin-to raises levels of somatostatin, motilin, and gastrin in the plasma of healthy subjects.
43  immunosuppressive treatment
(23 times)
Transplantation
(6 times)
MMF (2 times)
MTX (2 times)
RTX (2 times)
1982 Immunosuppression and the additive effect of plasma exchange in treatment of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.
44  implant shoulder
(22 times)
Dentistry
(19 times)
BC (8 times)
aJE (4 times)
CLB (3 times)
2007 Influence of platform switching on crestal bone changes at non-submerged titanium implants: a histomorphometrical study in dogs.
45  intercourse satisfaction
(21 times)
Urology
(12 times)
EF (19 times)
OS (16 times)
SD (14 times)
2003 [Effect of aging on male sexual function in 93 patients using international index of erectile function].
46  iliosacral
(20 times)
Orthopedics
(11 times)
MIAP (5 times)
TBP (3 times)
TS (3 times)
2005 Trans-sacral fixation for failed posterior fixation of the pelvic ring.
47  immediate spin
(20 times)
Hematology
(16 times)
IAT (6 times)
AHG (4 times)
RT (3 times)
1985 A proposal for compatibility testing incorporating the manual hexadimethrine bromide (Polybrene) test.
48  imperative stimulus
(20 times)
Neurology
(10 times)
RT (10 times)
WS (6 times)
CNV (4 times)
1978 Within-subject covariation of reaction time and foreperiod cardiac deceleration: effects of respiration and imperative stimulus intensity.
49  inherent structures
(20 times)
Biophysics
(14 times)
PEL (6 times)
HDA (3 times)
LDA (3 times)
2002 Potential energy landscape and mechanisms of diffusion in liquids.
50  intermittent suckling
(19 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(10 times)
CW (4 times)
CS (2 times)
CoM (1 time)
1995 Comparison of morning and afternoon feedings in very low birth weight infants.
51  intestinal spirochetosis
(19 times)
Microbiology
(7 times)
AIS (1 time)
CRC (1 time)
HIV (1 time)
1995 Intestinal spirochetosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: ultrastructural studies of two cases.
52  immunosuppressive drugs
(16 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(3 times)
CNI (3 times)
CsA (2 times)
PE (2 times)
1984 Plasma exchange and immunosuppressive drug treatment in the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome.
53  imperative signal
(16 times)
Brain
(5 times)
SAS (8 times)
WS (5 times)
RT (4 times)
1998 The use of advance information for motor preparation in Parkinson's disease: effects of cueing and compatibility between warning and imperative stimuli.
54  implantation sites
(16 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(8 times)
NIS (3 times)
GD (2 times)
AEA (1 time)
1982 Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in the implantation site of the rat.
55  interstitial
(16 times)
Neoplasms
(5 times)
IC (7 times)
BT (6 times)
HR-CTV (3 times)
1992 Dendritic morphology of interstitial amacrine cells with monostratified dendrites in different-sized carp retinas.
56  intervention school
(16 times)
Communicable Diseases
(2 times)
CS (6 times)
CASA (2 times)
AL (1 time)
1998 Intensive care 1980-1995: change in patient characteristics, nursing workload and outcome.
57  integrating sphere
(14 times)
Science
(6 times)
BM (1 time)
CP (1 time)
CR (1 time)
2006 Comparative study of integrating cavity absorption meters.
58  iliac screw
(13 times)
Orthopedics
(8 times)
S2AI (7 times)
ASD (4 times)
CI (3 times)
2011 Should symptomatic iliac screws be electively removed in adult spinal deformity patients fused to the sacrum?
59  immune serum
(13 times)
Cell Biology
(3 times)
Ab (1 time)
Ags (1 time)
AM (1 time)
1979 Effect of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on the binding of preimmune and immune sera to herpes simplex virus-infected cells as measured by quantitative immunofluorescence.
60  immunosuppressive substance
(13 times)
Neoplasms
(4 times)
IAP (2 times)
CEA (1 time)
PLP (1 time)
1982 [Clinical evaluation of the serum level of immunosuppressive acidic protein (IAP) and immunosuppressive substance (IS) in gastric cancer patients].
61  impulsive scattering
(13 times)
Chemistry
(13 times)
TD (12 times)
PFPE (5 times)
F-SAMs (4 times)
2006 Quantum state-resolved energy transfer dynamics at gas-liquid interfaces: IR laser studies of CO2 scattering from perfluorinated liquids.
62  insertion element
(13 times)
Microbiology
(6 times)
anti-IS900 (1 time)
BLAST (1 time)
CD (1 time)
1983 Family of middle repetitive DNA sequences in the mouse genome with structural features of solitary retroviral long terminal repeats.
63  interference screw
(13 times)
Orthopedics
(8 times)
ACL (5 times)
SA (3 times)
CB (2 times)
2010 The fixation strength of a novel ACL soft-tissue graft fixation device compared with conventional interference screws: a biomechanical study in vitro.
64  intermediate-spin
(13 times)
Chemistry
(10 times)
HS (8 times)
LS (6 times)
BS-DFT (1 time)
2004 The charge transfer band in horseradish peroxidase correlates with heme in-plane distortions induced by calcium removal.
65  internal standardization
(13 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(8 times)
SA (4 times)
EC (3 times)
ICP-MS (2 times)
2004 Improved HPLC methodology for monitoring thiopurine metabolites in patients on thiopurine therapy.
66  interventricular septum
(13 times)
Cardiology
(7 times)
LV (6 times)
LVFW (5 times)
MI (5 times)
1985 [Evaluation of the interventricular septum in left bundle branch block using basal echocardiography (M-mode) and myocardial stress scintigraphy (thallium-201)].
67  ionspray
(13 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(10 times)
API (4 times)
APCI (2 times)
CE (2 times)
1999 Identification of heparin oligosaccharides by direct coupling of capillary electrophoresis/ionspray-mass spectrometry.
68  ischemia
(13 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
PCr (2 times)
AbetaPP (1 time)
AC (1 time)
1986 [Prevention of ischemic and re-oxygenation arrhythmias and heart fibrillation using the antioxidant ionol].
69  importance sampling
(12 times)
Medical Informatics
(3 times)
MCMC (2 times)
AWGN (1 time)
BER (1 time)
2003 Estimation of population growth or decline in genetically monitored populations.
70  in situ
(12 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(2 times)
PCR (2 times)
aNDF (1 time)
AS (1 time)
1988 Factors affecting the patency of infrainguinal bypass.
71  iodized salt
(12 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(8 times)
DFS (4 times)
IDD (3 times)
ID (2 times)
2004 Rapid relapse of thyroid dysfunction and goiter in school-age children after discontinuation of salt iodization.
72  Islamic State
(12 times)
Psychiatry
(5 times)
PTSD (2 times)
HAP (1 time)
IES-R (1 time)
2015 Vaccine Science Diplomacy: Expanding Capacity to Prevent Emerging and Neglected Tropical Diseases Arising from Islamic State (IS)--Held Territories.
73  Icariside II
(11 times)
Neoplasms
(6 times)
ROS (2 times)
AA (1 time)
CDK2 (1 time)
2009 Cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin E2 pathway mediates icariside II induced apoptosis in human PC-3 prostate cancer cells.
74  inappropriate shocks
(11 times)
Cardiology
(9 times)
ICD (3 times)
S-ICD (3 times)
AF (2 times)
2007 Long-term follow-up of primary prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in Brugada syndrome.
75  inotropic score
(11 times)
Medicine
(4 times)
CPB (4 times)
VIS (3 times)
AUC (2 times)
2008 Fenoldopam in newborn patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass: controlled clinical trial.
76  Insight Scale
(11 times)
Psychiatry
(8 times)
PANSS (2 times)
SUMD (2 times)
BACS (1 time)
1998 Compliance with neuroleptic medication in outpatients with schizophrenia; relationship to subjective response to neuroleptics; attitudes to medication and insight.
77  intercellular space
(11 times)
Gastroenterology
(2 times)
GERD (4 times)
TEM (3 times)
LPR (2 times)
1995 Simultaneous measurements of Ca2+ in the intracellular stores and the cytosol of hepatocytes during hormone-induced Ca2+ oscillations.
78  interrupted suture
(11 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
CS (7 times)
AVR (2 times)
RS (2 times)
1994 Astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty. Role of the suture technique.
79  immunostaining
(10 times)
Biochemistry
(3 times)
PVN (2 times)
ABI (1 time)
ACe (1 time)
1996 Expression of Fos protein in various rat brain areas following acute nicotine and diazepam.
80  indentation strength
(10 times)
Dentistry
(5 times)
IF (3 times)
PICN (2 times)
SCF (2 times)
1999 Comparison of three fracture toughness testing techniques using a dental glass and a dental ceramic.
81  information seeking
(10 times)
Psychology
(2 times)
DM (3 times)
API (2 times)
CD (2 times)
1975 Visual orientation and self-perceptions of children in an external-cue-relevant or cue-irrelevant task situation.
82  inner stripe
(10 times)
Physiology
(6 times)
OM (3 times)
OS (3 times)
CD (2 times)
1986 Quick isolation of rat medullary thick ascending limbs. Enzymatic and metabolic characterization.
83  insertion
(10 times)
Microbiology
(4 times)
Tn (2 times)
AMOVA (1 time)
bp (1 time)
1980 Insertion element IS102 resides in plasmid pSC101.
84  intensity score
(10 times)
Pathology
(3 times)
PS (5 times)
IHC (3 times)
ER (2 times)
2004 Immunohistochemical assessment for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status in breast cancer: analysis for a cut-off point as the predictor for endocrine therapy.
85  interictal spikes
(10 times)
Neurology
(8 times)
APs (1 time)
ASD (1 time)
DM (1 time)
1985 Effect of phenobarbital pretreatment on cardiac neural discharge and pentylenetetrazol-induced epileptogenic activity in the cat.
86  idiopathic syringomyelia
(9 times)
Orthopedics
(4 times)
S/C (2 times)
CIM (1 time)
CM1 (1 time)
2009 Idiopathic syringomyelia: phase-contrast MR of cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics at level of foramen magnum.
87  ileal symbiont
(9 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(4 times)
PE (4 times)
PCR (2 times)
ELISA (1 time)
1993 Comparison of techniques for diagnosis of proliferative enteritis of swine.
88  impact strength
(9 times)
Dentistry
(4 times)
FS (3 times)
FT (2 times)
BA (1 time)
2009 Effect of reline material and denture base surface treatment on the impact strength of a denture base acrylic resin.
89  inescapable
(9 times)
Neurology
(4 times)
ES (9 times)
mPFC (2 times)
ACTH (1 time)
1993 Reversal of learned helplessness by chronic lithium treatment at a prophylactic level.
90  inescapable stress
(9 times)
Behavioral Sciences
(4 times)
ES (2 times)
PTSD (2 times)
2-AG (1 time)
1994 Efficacy of buspirone in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: an open trial.
91  inferior spikelets
(9 times)
Plant Physiological Phenomena
(4 times)
SS (9 times)
AGPase (2 times)
AGPS2 (1 time)
2014 A proteomic study on molecular mechanism of poor grain-filling of rice (Oryza sativa L.) inferior spikelets.
92  inhaled steroids
(9 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(4 times)
BDP (2 times)
LTRAs (2 times)
PFT (2 times)
1992 Dissociation of symptom scores and bronchial hyperreactivity: study in asthmatic children on long-term treatment with inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate.
93  initial slope
(9 times)
Vascular Diseases
(2 times)
AUC (3 times)
rCBF (3 times)
CBF (2 times)
1981 Noninvasive rCBF determination by 133XE-inhalation with the gamma camera and functional imaging of wash-in and wash-out. A new combined approach for rCBE measurements in patients with cerebrovascular disease.
94  Intimal sarcoma
(9 times)
Pathology
(4 times)
PDGFRA (3 times)
UPS (2 times)
AS (1 time)
2005 Undifferentiated intimal sarcoma of large systemic blood vessels: report of 14 cases with immunohistochemical profile and review of the literature.
95  iron supplementation
(9 times)
Hematology
(2 times)
ID (3 times)
BF (1 time)
EAG (1 time)
2011 Effect on haematological and anthropometric parameters of iron supplementation in the first 2 years of life. Risks and benefits.
96  irregular spiking
(9 times)
Neurology
(4 times)
FS (4 times)
RS (3 times)
AD (2 times)
1999 Properties of bipolar VIPergic interneurons and their excitation by pyramidal neurons in the rat neocortex.
97  isomer shift
(9 times)
Chemistry
(7 times)
QS (4 times)
CDW (1 time)
DFT (1 time)
2005 Addition of palladium and platinum tri-tert-butylphosphine groups to Re-Sn and Re-Ge bonds.
98  incudostapedial
(8 times)
Otolaryngology
(6 times)
CAA (1 time)
CT (1 time)
DTR (1 time)
2002 Surgical treatment of 52 cases of auditory ossicular malformations.
99  indeterminate sleep
(8 times)
Pediatrics
(3 times)
QS (7 times)
AS (5 times)
REM (2 times)
1981 [Waking-sleeping transition in the newborn baby and in infants before the age of 3 months (author's transl)].
100  inertial sensor
(8 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
RMSE (3 times)
ICC (2 times)
TI (2 times)
2009 Evaluation of clinical spasticity assessment in cerebral palsy using inertial sensors.