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Abbreviation: LD
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Long forms: 986

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
linkage disequilibrium
(3712 times)
Genetics, Medical
(799 times)
SNPs (946 times)
SNP (393 times)
GWAS (377 times)
1979 Strong linkage disequilibrium between HLA-Dw2 and and BfS in multiple sclerosis and in the normal population.
light-dark
(918 times)
Physiology
(376 times)
SCN (131 times)
DD (21 times)
CT (15 times)
1975 Control of sleep states in the rat by short light-dark cycles.
latissimus dorsi
(883 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(245 times)
SM (66 times)
PM (59 times)
ST (52 times)
1978 Histological and shear properties of bovine muscle and their alteration during postmortem ageing.
learning disabilities
(605 times)
Psychology
(323 times)
ADHD (78 times)
ASD (16 times)
CI (9 times)
1980 Abnormal eye movements in hyperkinetic children with learning disability.
lipid droplet
(513 times)
Biochemistry
(93 times)
ER (57 times)
TAG (38 times)
HCV (28 times)
1984 A quantitative electron microscopic analysis of the membrana granulosa of rat preovulatory follicles.
long-day
(461 times)
Botany
(136 times)
SD (360 times)
FT (36 times)
CO (31 times)
1967 The control by gibberellic acid of stem elongation and flowering in biennial plants of Centaurium minus Moench.
lactate dehydrogenase
(420 times)
Chemistry, Clinical
(96 times)
CK (123 times)
AST (68 times)
ALP (38 times)
1966 Alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase activity in sex-linked muscular dystrophy.
low-dose
(371 times)
Radiology
(39 times)
HD (226 times)
SD (36 times)
MD (27 times)
1978 Vagal and aerosol histamine interactions on airway responses in dogs.
Lyme disease
(371 times)
Communicable Diseases
(71 times)
EM (22 times)
Bb (17 times)
ELISA (14 times)
1984 Immunochemical analysis of Lyme disease spirochetes.
10  Legionnaires' disease
(302 times)
Communicable Diseases
(105 times)
SBT (16 times)
Lp (15 times)
Lp1 (13 times)
1978 Pathology of five Scottish deaths from pneumonic illnesses acquired in Spain due to Legionnaires' disease agent.
11  limited disease
(248 times)
Neoplasms
(195 times)
ED (175 times)
SCLC (169 times)
CR (46 times)
1980 A randomized combined modality trial in small cell carcinoma of the lung: comparison of combination chemotherapy-radiation therapy versus cyclophosphamide-radiation therapy effects of maintenance chemotherapy and prophylactiv whole brain irradiation.
12  levodopa
(231 times)
Neurology
(105 times)
PD (142 times)
CD (31 times)
DA (25 times)
1988 Continuous duodenal infusions of levodopa: plasma concentrations and motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease.
13  loading dose
(204 times)
Cardiology
(62 times)
MD (60 times)
PCI (48 times)
ACS (22 times)
1979 Cefamandole pharmacokinetics and dosage adjustments in relation to renal function.
14  living donor
(198 times)
Transplantation
(132 times)
DD (66 times)
CD (22 times)
LT (15 times)
1992 Pediatric renal transplants--results with sequential immunosuppression.
15  linear dichroism
(187 times)
Biochemistry
(57 times)
CD (51 times)
LB (10 times)
PVA (6 times)
1976 Infrared dichroism of the DNA-caffeine complex. A new method for determination of the ligand orientation.
16  low-density
(173 times)
Hematology
(20 times)
HD (97 times)
MD (9 times)
VLD (8 times)
1972 Lipoprotein particles from the Golgi apparatus of guinea-pig liver.
17  laser diode
(164 times)
Ophthalmology
(120 times)
cw (11 times)
BER (10 times)
FEC (9 times)
1983 Modal-noise evaluation in multimode-fiber transmission.
18  Lafora disease
(129 times)
Neurology
(47 times)
LBs (27 times)
EEG (4 times)
GS (4 times)
1991 Early detection of skin and muscular involvement in Lafora disease.
19  light-dark cycle
(118 times)
Physiology
(32 times)
SCN (25 times)
DD (7 times)
KO (4 times)
1976 Brain temperature in the unanaesthetized chicken: its circadian rhythm of responsiveness to light.
20  laser Doppler
(116 times)
Vascular Diseases
(28 times)
CBF (18 times)
ACh (6 times)
PRH (6 times)
1984 The assessment of skin blood flow in peripheral vascular disease by laser Doppler velocimetry.
21  lipodystrophy
(116 times)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
(28 times)
HAART (20 times)
ART (12 times)
HIV (11 times)
1998 Disorders of fat distribution in HIV infection.
22  Leishmania donovani
(99 times)
Tropical Medicine
(15 times)
VL (26 times)
PKDL (7 times)
SAG (7 times)
1981 Leishmaniasis recidivans treated with sodium stibogluconate.
23  lumen diameter
(91 times)
Vascular Diseases
(31 times)
IMT (18 times)
IAD (10 times)
CCA (9 times)
1982 Three-dimensional organization of smooth muscle cells in blood vessels of laboratory rodents.
24  learning disabled
(88 times)
Psychology
(46 times)
ADHD (5 times)
ED (4 times)
FL (4 times)
1975 Hemispheric processing and cognitive styles in learning-disabled and normal children.
25  lymphocyte depletion
(77 times)
Neoplasms
(22 times)
MC (38 times)
NS (33 times)
LP (27 times)
1977 Prognostic factors in Hodgkin's disease. I. Analysis of histopathology, stage distribution and results of therapy.
26  lesion depth
(69 times)
Dentistry
(57 times)
ML (12 times)
IML (10 times)
PD (6 times)
1991 An in vivo study on the merits of two glass ionomers for the cementation of orthodontic bands.
27  lethal dose
(69 times)
Toxicology
(10 times)
LPS (4 times)
i.p (3 times)
i.v (3 times)
1976 Methyl-CCNU: preclinical toxicologic evaluation of a single iv infusion in dogs and monkeys.
28  liver disease
(68 times)
Gastroenterology
(16 times)
HCV (7 times)
CF (6 times)
NAFLD (6 times)
1983 Changes in size, subclass, and metabolic properties of serum immunoglobulin A in liver diseases and in other diseases with high serum immunoglobulin A.
29  lumbar drainage
(67 times)
Neurosurgery
(24 times)
CSF (33 times)
EVD (20 times)
SAH (9 times)
2006 Intracerebral hemorrhage with severe ventricular involvement: lumbar drainage for communicating hydrocephalus.
30  lithium disilicate
(63 times)
Dentistry
(42 times)
CAD-CAM (6 times)
PICN (6 times)
HF (5 times)
2004 In vitro fracture resistance of posterior metal-ceramic and all-ceramic inlay-retained resin-bonded fixed partial dentures.
31  learning disorder
(62 times)
Pediatrics
(15 times)
ADHD (28 times)
ASD (6 times)
AD/HD (4 times)
1981 Learning-disordered children's evoked potentials during sustained attention.
32  longest diameter
(58 times)
Radiology
(20 times)
SD (21 times)
CT (9 times)
ROC (9 times)
1999 Prenatal sonographic chest and lung measurements for predicting severe pulmonary hypoplasia.
33  limiting dilution
(57 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(40 times)
CTL (12 times)
CTLp (8 times)
Th (8 times)
1983 Quantitative studies on T cell diversity. IV. Mathematical analysis of multiple limiting populations of effector and suppressor T cells.
34  limit of detection
(51 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(16 times)
LQ (9 times)
PD (3 times)
ELSD (2 times)
1993 A new look at the limits of detection (LD), quantification (LQ) and power of definition (PD)
35  detection limit
(45 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(18 times)
RTP (16 times)
LQ (12 times)
SS-RTP (12 times)
1993 Application of systematic error bounds to detection limits for practical counting.
36  laser diffraction
(43 times)
Pharmacology
(22 times)
PCS (6 times)
SEM (6 times)
PSD (5 times)
2001 Technical note: use of laser diffraction for particle size distribution measurements in duodenal digesta.
37  long photoperiod
(33 times)
Physiology
(9 times)
SD (32 times)
DA (2 times)
HA (2 times)
1985 Naloxone-induced secretion of LH in the male Syrian hamster: modulation by photoperiod and gonadal steroids.
38  L-dopa
(32 times)
Pharmacology
(11 times)
DA (17 times)
PD (7 times)
GPx (3 times)
1977 L-tryptophan administration in L-dopa-induced hallucinations in elderly Parkinsonian patients.
39  language delay
(32 times)
Psychiatry
(10 times)
ASD (8 times)
TD (5 times)
DD (4 times)
1985 Interactions of language-delayed and normal preschool boys with their peers.
40  latissimus dorsi muscle
(32 times)
General Surgery
(5 times)
IMF (3 times)
ADG (2 times)
BF (2 times)
1992 Skeletal muscle powered pumps can work under low preload. Design considerations.
41  lactation day
(31 times)
Toxicology
(17 times)
GD (18 times)
PND (6 times)
NOAEL (3 times)
1995 Effects of porcine growth hormone on pregnancy and fetal/neonatal development in the rat.
42  lateral dorsal
(31 times)
Neurology
(21 times)
LP (13 times)
PO (9 times)
AV (7 times)
1982 Thalamic projections to visual areas of the middle suprasylvian sulcus in the cat.
43  lexical decision
(31 times)
Psychology
(15 times)
fMRI (2 times)
NAM (2 times)
PD (2 times)
1991 On the conditions necessary for obtaining argument structure complexity effects.
44  live donor
(31 times)
Transplantation
(17 times)
DD (6 times)
HR (4 times)
CI (3 times)
1999 The shrinking renal replacement therapy "break-even" point.
45  lactic acid
(29 times)
Physiology
(6 times)
MDA (14 times)
LDH (13 times)
SOD (12 times)
2005 [Effects of Astragalus membranaceus injection on nitric oxide and endothelin concentration of intestinal mucosa after hemorrhage shock-reperfusion in rats].
46  liver dysfunction
(29 times)
Gastroenterology
(6 times)
OR (3 times)
PN (3 times)
AST (2 times)
1991 Chronic liver dysfunction in heart transplant recipients, with special reference to viral B, C, and non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis. A retrospective study in 80 patients with follow-up of 60 months.
47  liposomal doxorubicin
(28 times)
Neoplasms
(18 times)
DOX (3 times)
OS (3 times)
PPE (3 times)
1997 Kaposi's sarcoma and its management in AIDS patients. Recommendations from a Scandinavian Study Group.
48  lidocaine
(27 times)
Pharmacology
(9 times)
PB (3 times)
5-FU (2 times)
CwG (2 times)
1987 [The effect of lidocaine on brain edema and neural function].
49  Langevin dynamics
(26 times)
Chemistry
(11 times)
MD (7 times)
SGLD (3 times)
BD (2 times)
1992 Langevin dynamics of peptides: the frictional dependence of isomerization rates of N-acetylalanyl-N'-methylamide.
50  long-distance
(25 times)
Sports Medicine
(9 times)
MD (10 times)
SD (3 times)
HDL-C (2 times)
1981 Anaerobic performance in middle and long distance runners.
51  laser diffractometry
(24 times)
Pharmacology
(11 times)
PCS (16 times)
DSC (7 times)
NLC (5 times)
1993 Fat emulsions for parenteral nutrition II: Characterisation and physical long-term stability of Lipofundin MCT LCT.
52  lithogenic diet
(24 times)
Biochemistry
(6 times)
ABC (3 times)
BA (3 times)
CG (3 times)
2003 Keratin-8 null mice have different gallbladder and liver susceptibility to lithogenic diet-induced injury.
53  loop diuretics
(23 times)
Cardiology
(6 times)
HF (6 times)
PTH (5 times)
BMD (2 times)
1992 Action of diuretics at the cellular level.
54  language disorder
(22 times)
Psychiatry
(8 times)
ASD (4 times)
AAE (1 time)
ADHD (1 time)
1990 Comprehension monitoring in language-disordered children: a preliminary investigation of cognitive and linguistic factors.
55  lateral decubitus
(22 times)
Ophthalmology
(3 times)
BC (7 times)
IOP (3 times)
MCMS (3 times)
1991 Breast irradiation in the lateral decubitus position: technique of the Institut Curie.
56  low-dimensional
(21 times)
Chemistry
(6 times)
HD (5 times)
DR (2 times)
3AP (1 time)
2008 Enhanced spectral resolution by high-dimensional NMR using the filter diagonalization method and "hidden" dimensions.
57  light damage
(19 times)
Ophthalmology
(7 times)
AMD (8 times)
SD (5 times)
ERG (3 times)
2006 Multiple, parallel cellular suicide mechanisms participate in photoreceptor cell death.
58  local dependence
(19 times)
Therapeutics
(2 times)
DIF (10 times)
IRT (6 times)
CFA (4 times)
1999 Impaired load dependence of diaphragm relaxation during congestive heart failure in the rabbit.
59  lung disease
(19 times)
Medicine
(5 times)
MAC (9 times)
LC (2 times)
MAS (2 times)
2012 Chronic smoke exposure induces rheumatoid factor and anti-heat shock protein 70 autoantibodies in susceptible mice and humans with lung disease.
60  limited-stage disease
(18 times)
Neoplasms
(13 times)
SCLC (16 times)
ED (12 times)
CR (5 times)
1988 The role of external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of small-cell lung cancer.
61  lower dose
(18 times)
Neoplasms
(5 times)
HD (12 times)
CI (3 times)
OS (3 times)
1990 Recombinant gamma-interferon as first line therapy for high risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Italian MDS Study Group.
62  lamina densa
(17 times)
Cell Biology
(4 times)
GBM (7 times)
LL (5 times)
LRE (5 times)
1980 Increased permeability of the glomerular basement membrane to ferritin after removal of glycosaminoglycans (heparan sulfate) by enzyme digestion.
63  light/12-h dark
(17 times)
Ophthalmology
(5 times)
SCN (3 times)
DD (2 times)
ELGs (2 times)
1994 Diurnal and circadian changes of serotonin in the suprachiasmatic nuclei: regulation by light and an endogenous pacemaker.
64  laser desorption
(16 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(14 times)
LTP (3 times)
MALDI (3 times)
FTMS (2 times)
1991 Investigation of UV matrix-assisted laser desorption fourier transform mass spectrometry for peptides.
65  light-dark conditions
(16 times)
Neurology
(5 times)
DD (5 times)
SCN (2 times)
AA-NAT (1 time)
1988 Cytochrome oxidase histochemistry in the effect of light deprivation on the fly visual system.
66  light-darkness
(16 times)
Endocrinology
(3 times)
EPM (2 times)
SCN (2 times)
2,3BDZ (1 time)
1978 A daily rhythm in the behavioural sensitivity of the female rat to oestradiol.
67  linear discriminant
(16 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(3 times)
KNN (4 times)
SVM (4 times)
DT (3 times)
1999 Hidden Markov models used for the offline classification of EEG data.
68  living donation
(16 times)
Transplantation
(9 times)
DCD (2 times)
DD (2 times)
BD (1 time)
2002 Renal allograft survival in transplant recipients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
69  lumbar discectomy
(16 times)
Orthopedics
(7 times)
BMI (2 times)
LDH (2 times)
RTW (2 times)
2008 Measurement of paradoxical and coupled motions following lumbar total disc replacement.
70  lymphocyte-defined
(16 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(11 times)
SD (7 times)
MLC (5 times)
MHC (4 times)
1972 Serologically defined and lymphocyte-defined components of the major histocompatibility complex in the mouse.
71  laryngeal dystonia
(15 times)
Otolaryngology
(7 times)
CD (2 times)
BoNT (1 time)
BPS (1 time)
1986 Episodic laryngeal dyskinesia. Clinical and psychiatric characterization.
72  longitudinal diffusivity
(15 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(6 times)
MD (7 times)
TD (7 times)
DTI (6 times)
2012 Influence of the measurement method of features in ultrasound images of the thyroid in the diagnosis of Hashimoto's disease.
73  late diagnosis
(14 times)
Medicine
(4 times)
ED (3 times)
HIV (3 times)
AD (2 times)
2004 Late diagnosis defines a unique population of long-term survivors of cystic fibrosis.
74  learning difficulties
(14 times)
Psychology
(4 times)
DD (2 times)
AP (1 time)
APA (1 time)
1987 Comparison of visual characteristics in children with and without learning difficulties.
75  light drinkers
(14 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(6 times)
HD (4 times)
BD (3 times)
MD (3 times)
1987 Effect of chronic ethanol administration and abstinence on serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin and growth hormone concentrations in rats with high and low ethanol intake.
76  light-duty
(14 times)
Environmental Health
(11 times)
HD (10 times)
PM (4 times)
CO (3 times)
1988 Effects of diesel exhaust particles on chromosome aberration, sister chromatid exchange and morphological transformation in cultured mammalian cells.
77  limit dextrinase
(14 times)
Molecular Biology
(4 times)
LDI (5 times)
ABA (1 time)
AGL (1 time)
2004 Antisense downregulation of the barley limit dextrinase inhibitor modulates starch granule size distribution, starch composition and amylopectin structure.
78  limited
(14 times)
Neoplasms
(9 times)
SCLC (9 times)
ED (5 times)
NSCLC (2 times)
1986 Ambulatory combination chemotherapy with oral etoposide and cisplatin for advanced non small cell lung carcinoma patients. A phase II study.
79  lithium disilicate glass-ceramic
(14 times)
Dentistry
(8 times)
FC (3 times)
SEM (3 times)
ANOVA (2 times)
2015 Microshear Bond Strength of Resin Cements to Lithium Disilicate Substrates as a Function of Surface Preparation.
80  long day length
(14 times)
Endocrinology
(5 times)
SD (12 times)
3'-UTR (1 time)
6-MBOA (1 time)
1993 Response to short photoperiod and spontaneous sexual recrudescence in the lesser mouse lemur: role of olfactory bulb removal.
81  long duration
(14 times)
Cardiology
(2 times)
SD (6 times)
CI (2 times)
HI (2 times)
1994 Angiotensin II neurotransmitter actions in paraventricular nucleus are potentiated by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor.
82  lumbar decompression
(14 times)
Orthopedics
(6 times)
VAS (5 times)
ODI (4 times)
LOS (3 times)
2013 The incidence and mortality of thromboembolic events in lumbar spine surgery.
83  Lymphedema-distichiasis
(14 times)
Genetics, Medical
(9 times)
BCD (1 time)
CI (1 time)
DM (1 time)
1999 A gene for lymphedema-distichiasis maps to 16q24.3.
84  lymphoproliferative disorders
(14 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
IBD (3 times)
AML (2 times)
CD (2 times)
1976 Human spleen heme oxygenase in normal, hemolytic and other pathological states.
85  lateral displacement
(13 times)
Dentistry
(2 times)
SD (2 times)
ACV (1 time)
AD (1 time)
2004 Foot-ground reaction force during resistive exercise in parabolic flight.
86  light/dark regimen
(13 times)
Endocrinology
(5 times)
AOE (1 time)
AOS (1 time)
CS (1 time)
1984 Influence of continuous illumination on estrous cycle of rats: time course of changes in levels of gonadotropins and ovarian steroids until occurrence of persistent estrus.
87  lactase deficiency
(12 times)
Gastroenterology
(3 times)
LI (3 times)
IBS (2 times)
BOG (1 time)
1977 Lactase deficiency--a comparative study of diagnostic methods.
88  laterodorsal thalamic nucleus
(12 times)
Neurology
(7 times)
ATN (1 time)
AV (1 time)
CL (1 time)
1979 Afferent connections of the laterodorsal thalamic nucleus in the rat.
89  light density
(12 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
BM (2 times)
CGRP (2 times)
HH (2 times)
1988 5-fluorodeoxyuridine decreases the effect of arabinofuranosyl-cytosine in undifferentiated human B lymphocytes.
90  labyrinthine-defective
(11 times)
Brain
(5 times)
CCW (1 time)
COR (1 time)
CW (1 time)
1989 Circularvection about earth-horizontal axes in bilateral labyrinthine-defective subjects.
91  left dominant
(11 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
RD (8 times)
CD (4 times)
CAD (2 times)
2007 Coronary dominance and prognosis of patients with acute coronary syndrome.
92  light deprivation
(11 times)
Neurology
(6 times)
TMS (2 times)
BDNF (1 time)
CS (1 time)
2003 Effects of light deprivation on recovery from neglect and extinction induced by unilateral lesions of the medial agranular cortex and dorsocentral striatum.
93  lockdown
(11 times)
Public Health
(2 times)
HW (2 times)
PLD (2 times)
BC (1 time)
2020 Changing clinical patterns of Rhegmatogeneous Retinal Detachments during the COVID19 pandemic lockdown in the North West of the UK.
94  London dispersion
(11 times)
Chemistry
(10 times)
LED (3 times)
TPM (2 times)
Ad (1 time)
2016 Multi-conformer molecules in solutions: an NMR-based DFT/MP2 conformational study of two glucopyranosides of a vitamin E model compound.
95  longitudinal diameter
(11 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
TD (6 times)
APD (3 times)
CT (2 times)
2014 Genetic divergence among accessions of melon from traditional agriculture of the Brazilian Northeast.
96  lucid dreaming
(11 times)
Cognitive Science
(8 times)
REMS (3 times)
BD (1 time)
FA (1 time)
2013 Neurobiology and clinical implications of lucid dreaming.
97  luminance-defined
(11 times)
Ophthalmology
(7 times)
MD (5 times)
OTD (3 times)
TD (2 times)
1992 Dissociation of orientation discrimination from form detection for motion-defined bars and luminance-defined bars: effects of dot lifetime and presentation duration.
98  laser Doppler flowmetry
(10 times)
Vascular Diseases
(4 times)
SLS (2 times)
TEWL (2 times)
APG (1 time)
1986 The value of laser Doppler velocimetry and transcutaneous oxygen tension determination in predicting healing of ischemic forefoot ulcerations and amputations in diabetic and nondiabetic patients.
99  liquid desorption
(10 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(9 times)
SBSE (7 times)
PDMS (3 times)
LOQ (2 times)
2004 Determination of 4-tert.-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol in laboratory animal feed sample by stir bar sorptive extraction followed by liquid desorption and column-switching liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with solid-phase extraction.
100  localized disease
(10 times)
Pediatrics
(7 times)
CWS (6 times)
CHT (4 times)
CR (3 times)
1993 A randomized study comparing cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine (CAV) with cyclophosphamide, etoposide, vincristine, methotrexate (CEVM) in patients with small cell lung cancer.