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Abbreviation: LD
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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
linkage disequilibrium
(3919 times)
Genetics, Medical
(812 times)
SNPs (1006 times)
GWAS (433 times)
SNP (418 times)
1979 Strong linkage disequilibrium between HLA-Dw2 and and BfS in multiple sclerosis and in the normal population.
latissimus dorsi
(976 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(246 times)
SM (68 times)
PM (63 times)
ST (55 times)
1978 Histological and shear properties of bovine muscle and their alteration during postmortem ageing.
light-dark
(945 times)
Physiology
(381 times)
SCN (138 times)
DD (25 times)
WT (17 times)
1975 Control of sleep states in the rat by short light-dark cycles.
learning disabilities
(618 times)
Psychology
(327 times)
ADHD (82 times)
ASD (18 times)
CI (10 times)
1980 Abnormal eye movements in hyperkinetic children with learning disability.
lipid droplet
(606 times)
Cell Biology
(102 times)
ER (73 times)
TG (39 times)
TAG (38 times)
1984 A quantitative electron microscopic analysis of the membrana granulosa of rat preovulatory follicles.
long-day
(492 times)
Botany
(144 times)
SD (383 times)
FT (39 times)
CO (33 times)
1967 The control by gibberellic acid of stem elongation and flowering in biennial plants of Centaurium minus Moench.
lactate dehydrogenase
(431 times)
Chemistry, Clinical
(99 times)
CK (124 times)
AST (68 times)
ALP (39 times)
1966 Alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase activity in sex-linked muscular dystrophy.
low-dose
(428 times)
Radiology
(44 times)
HD (257 times)
SD (44 times)
MD (36 times)
1978 Vagal and aerosol histamine interactions on airway responses in dogs.
Lyme disease
(422 times)
Communicable Diseases
(78 times)
EM (25 times)
Bb (22 times)
ELISA (14 times)
1984 Immunochemical analysis of Lyme disease spirochetes.
10  Legionnaires' disease
(327 times)
Communicable Diseases
(107 times)
SBT (17 times)
Lp1 (16 times)
Lp (15 times)
1978 Pathology of five Scottish deaths from pneumonic illnesses acquired in Spain due to Legionnaires' disease agent.
11  limited disease
(252 times)
Neoplasms
(198 times)
ED (177 times)
SCLC (173 times)
CR (46 times)
1980 A randomized combined modality trial in small cell carcinoma of the lung: comparison of combination chemotherapy-radiation therapy versus cyclophosphamide-radiation therapy effects of maintenance chemotherapy and prophylactiv whole brain irradiation.
12  levodopa
(246 times)
Neurology
(107 times)
PD (148 times)
CD (32 times)
DA (25 times)
1988 Continuous duodenal infusions of levodopa: plasma concentrations and motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease.
13  loading dose
(218 times)
Cardiology
(66 times)
MD (62 times)
PCI (50 times)
ACS (23 times)
1979 Cefamandole pharmacokinetics and dosage adjustments in relation to renal function.
14  living donor
(216 times)
Transplantation
(139 times)
DD (74 times)
CD (22 times)
LT (15 times)
1992 Pediatric renal transplants--results with sequential immunosuppression.
15  linear dichroism
(197 times)
Biochemistry
(57 times)
CD (54 times)
LB (12 times)
PVA (6 times)
1976 Infrared dichroism of the DNA-caffeine complex. A new method for determination of the ligand orientation.
16  laser diode
(188 times)
Ophthalmology
(137 times)
cw (12 times)
BER (10 times)
FEC (10 times)
1983 Modal-noise evaluation in multimode-fiber transmission.
17  low-density
(186 times)
Hematology
(20 times)
HD (104 times)
MD (10 times)
LMA (8 times)
1972 Lipoprotein particles from the Golgi apparatus of guinea-pig liver.
18  Lafora disease
(138 times)
Neurology
(54 times)
LBs (29 times)
EEG (4 times)
GS (4 times)
1991 Early detection of skin and muscular involvement in Lafora disease.
19  light-dark cycle
(123 times)
Physiology
(32 times)
SCN (25 times)
DD (7 times)
KO (4 times)
1976 Brain temperature in the unanaesthetized chicken: its circadian rhythm of responsiveness to light.
20  lipodystrophy
(121 times)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
(28 times)
HAART (20 times)
ART (12 times)
HIV (11 times)
1998 Disorders of fat distribution in HIV infection.
21  laser Doppler
(116 times)
Vascular Diseases
(28 times)
CBF (18 times)
ACh (6 times)
PRH (6 times)
1984 The assessment of skin blood flow in peripheral vascular disease by laser Doppler velocimetry.
22  Leishmania donovani
(108 times)
Tropical Medicine
(16 times)
VL (30 times)
PKDL (10 times)
SAG (7 times)
1981 Leishmaniasis recidivans treated with sodium stibogluconate.
23  lumen diameter
(97 times)
Vascular Diseases
(32 times)
IMT (19 times)
IAD (11 times)
CCA (9 times)
1982 Three-dimensional organization of smooth muscle cells in blood vessels of laboratory rodents.
24  learning disabled
(88 times)
Psychology
(46 times)
ADHD (5 times)
ED (4 times)
FL (4 times)
1975 Hemispheric processing and cognitive styles in learning-disabled and normal children.
25  lumbar drainage
(84 times)
Neurosurgery
(27 times)
CSF (44 times)
EVD (23 times)
SAH (10 times)
2006 Intracerebral hemorrhage with severe ventricular involvement: lumbar drainage for communicating hydrocephalus.
26  lithium disilicate
(80 times)
Dentistry
(50 times)
CAD-CAM (7 times)
HF (6 times)
PICN (6 times)
2004 In vitro fracture resistance of posterior metal-ceramic and all-ceramic inlay-retained resin-bonded fixed partial dentures.
27  lymphocyte depletion
(78 times)
Neoplasms
(22 times)
MC (38 times)
NS (33 times)
LP (27 times)
1977 Prognostic factors in Hodgkin's disease. I. Analysis of histopathology, stage distribution and results of therapy.
28  liver disease
(76 times)
Gastroenterology
(16 times)
CF (8 times)
HCV (7 times)
NAFLD (6 times)
1983 Changes in size, subclass, and metabolic properties of serum immunoglobulin A in liver diseases and in other diseases with high serum immunoglobulin A.
29  lethal dose
(75 times)
Toxicology
(10 times)
LPS (4 times)
i.p (3 times)
i.v (3 times)
1976 Methyl-CCNU: preclinical toxicologic evaluation of a single iv infusion in dogs and monkeys.
30  lesion depth
(72 times)
Dentistry
(58 times)
ML (12 times)
IML (10 times)
PD (6 times)
1991 An in vivo study on the merits of two glass ionomers for the cementation of orthodontic bands.
31  learning disorder
(68 times)
Pediatrics
(15 times)
ADHD (31 times)
ASD (6 times)
AD/HD (4 times)
1981 Learning-disordered children's evoked potentials during sustained attention.
32  longest diameter
(67 times)
Radiology
(22 times)
SD (25 times)
CT (12 times)
ROC (10 times)
1999 Prenatal sonographic chest and lung measurements for predicting severe pulmonary hypoplasia.
33  limiting dilution
(57 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(40 times)
CTL (12 times)
CTLp (8 times)
Th (8 times)
1983 Quantitative studies on T cell diversity. IV. Mathematical analysis of multiple limiting populations of effector and suppressor T cells.
34  limit of detection
(52 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(17 times)
LQ (10 times)
PD (3 times)
ELSD (2 times)
1993 A new look at the limits of detection (LD), quantification (LQ) and power of definition (PD)
35  laser diffraction
(45 times)
Pharmacology
(23 times)
SEM (7 times)
PCS (6 times)
PSD (6 times)
2001 Technical note: use of laser diffraction for particle size distribution measurements in duodenal digesta.
36  detection limit
(42 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(15 times)
RTP (15 times)
LQ (13 times)
SS-RTP (12 times)
1993 Application of systematic error bounds to detection limits for practical counting.
37  lactic acid
(38 times)
Physiology
(8 times)
LDH (17 times)
MDA (17 times)
SOD (15 times)
2005 [Effects of Astragalus membranaceus injection on nitric oxide and endothelin concentration of intestinal mucosa after hemorrhage shock-reperfusion in rats].
38  live donor
(36 times)
Transplantation
(20 times)
DD (8 times)
HR (4 times)
CI (3 times)
1999 The shrinking renal replacement therapy "break-even" point.
39  lactation day
(35 times)
Toxicology
(18 times)
GD (20 times)
PND (8 times)
NOAEL (3 times)
1995 Effects of porcine growth hormone on pregnancy and fetal/neonatal development in the rat.
40  language delay
(35 times)
Psychiatry
(10 times)
ASD (8 times)
TD (5 times)
DD (4 times)
1985 Interactions of language-delayed and normal preschool boys with their peers.
41  L-dopa
(34 times)
Pharmacology
(11 times)
DA (17 times)
PD (8 times)
CD (3 times)
1977 L-tryptophan administration in L-dopa-induced hallucinations in elderly Parkinsonian patients.
42  liver dysfunction
(34 times)
Gastroenterology
(6 times)
OR (4 times)
LR (3 times)
PN (3 times)
1991 Chronic liver dysfunction in heart transplant recipients, with special reference to viral B, C, and non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis. A retrospective study in 80 patients with follow-up of 60 months.
43  latissimus dorsi muscle
(33 times)
General Surgery
(5 times)
IMF (3 times)
ADG (2 times)
BF (2 times)
1992 Skeletal muscle powered pumps can work under low preload. Design considerations.
44  long photoperiod
(33 times)
Physiology
(9 times)
SD (32 times)
DA (2 times)
HA (2 times)
1985 Naloxone-induced secretion of LH in the male Syrian hamster: modulation by photoperiod and gonadal steroids.
45  laterodorsal
(32 times)
Neurology
(21 times)
LP (13 times)
PO (9 times)
AV (7 times)
1982 Thalamic projections to visual areas of the middle suprasylvian sulcus in the cat.
46  lexical decision
(32 times)
Psychology
(15 times)
fMRI (2 times)
LPN (2 times)
NAM (2 times)
1991 On the conditions necessary for obtaining argument structure complexity effects.
47  lithogenic diet
(32 times)
Biochemistry
(9 times)
ABC (4 times)
BA (4 times)
CG (4 times)
2003 Keratin-8 null mice have different gallbladder and liver susceptibility to lithogenic diet-induced injury.
48  lower dose
(31 times)
Neoplasms
(6 times)
HD (18 times)
CI (4 times)
SD (4 times)
1990 Recombinant gamma-interferon as first line therapy for high risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Italian MDS Study Group.
49  lidocaine
(29 times)
Pharmacology
(9 times)
PB (3 times)
5-FU (2 times)
CwG (2 times)
1987 [The effect of lidocaine on brain edema and neural function].
50  Langevin dynamics
(28 times)
Chemistry
(12 times)
MD (7 times)
SGLD (3 times)
BD (2 times)
1992 Langevin dynamics of peptides: the frictional dependence of isomerization rates of N-acetylalanyl-N'-methylamide.
51  liposomal doxorubicin
(28 times)
Neoplasms
(18 times)
DOX (3 times)
OS (3 times)
PPE (3 times)
1997 Kaposi's sarcoma and its management in AIDS patients. Recommendations from a Scandinavian Study Group.
52  long-distance
(27 times)
Sports Medicine
(10 times)
MD (10 times)
SD (4 times)
HDL-C (2 times)
1981 Anaerobic performance in middle and long distance runners.
53  low-dimensional
(27 times)
Chemistry
(8 times)
HD (7 times)
PSCs (3 times)
DR (2 times)
2008 Enhanced spectral resolution by high-dimensional NMR using the filter diagonalization method and "hidden" dimensions.
54  language disorder
(26 times)
Psychiatry
(8 times)
ASD (6 times)
ADHD (2 times)
ID (2 times)
1990 Comprehension monitoring in language-disordered children: a preliminary investigation of cognitive and linguistic factors.
55  lateral decubitus
(25 times)
Orthopedics
(4 times)
BC (7 times)
IOP (3 times)
MCMS (3 times)
1991 Breast irradiation in the lateral decubitus position: technique of the Institut Curie.
56  loop diuretics
(25 times)
Cardiology
(7 times)
HF (7 times)
PTH (5 times)
HR (3 times)
1992 Action of diuretics at the cellular level.
57  lung disease
(25 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(5 times)
MAC (11 times)
NTM (4 times)
RA (3 times)
2012 Chronic smoke exposure induces rheumatoid factor and anti-heat shock protein 70 autoantibodies in susceptible mice and humans with lung disease.
58  laser diffractometry
(24 times)
Pharmacology
(11 times)
PCS (16 times)
DSC (7 times)
NLC (5 times)
1993 Fat emulsions for parenteral nutrition II: Characterisation and physical long-term stability of Lipofundin MCT LCT.
59  light damage
(21 times)
Ophthalmology
(7 times)
AMD (9 times)
SD (5 times)
ERG (3 times)
2006 Multiple, parallel cellular suicide mechanisms participate in photoreceptor cell death.
60  limited-stage disease
(21 times)
Neoplasms
(16 times)
SCLC (18 times)
ED (14 times)
PCI (7 times)
1988 The role of external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of small-cell lung cancer.
61  linear discriminant
(21 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(5 times)
SVM (6 times)
KNN (5 times)
DT (4 times)
1999 Hidden Markov models used for the offline classification of EEG data.
62  lithium disilicate glass-ceramic
(20 times)
Dentistry
(12 times)
SEM (4 times)
ANOVA (3 times)
FC (3 times)
2015 Microshear Bond Strength of Resin Cements to Lithium Disilicate Substrates as a Function of Surface Preparation.
63  local dependence
(20 times)
Therapeutics
(2 times)
DIF (11 times)
IRT (6 times)
CFA (4 times)
1999 Impaired load dependence of diaphragm relaxation during congestive heart failure in the rabbit.
64  lumbar decompression
(20 times)
Orthopedics
(6 times)
VAS (9 times)
PROMIS PF (7 times)
ODI (6 times)
2013 The incidence and mortality of thromboembolic events in lumbar spine surgery.
65  late diagnosis
(18 times)
Medicine
(4 times)
ED (3 times)
HIV (3 times)
AD (2 times)
2004 Late diagnosis defines a unique population of long-term survivors of cystic fibrosis.
66  London dispersion
(18 times)
Chemistry
(17 times)
LED (4 times)
DEDs (3 times)
DLPNO-CC (2 times)
2016 Multi-conformer molecules in solutions: an NMR-based DFT/MP2 conformational study of two glucopyranosides of a vitamin E model compound.
67  lumbar discectomy
(18 times)
Orthopedics
(7 times)
LDH (3 times)
BMI (2 times)
rLDH (2 times)
2008 Measurement of paradoxical and coupled motions following lumbar total disc replacement.
68  lamina densa
(17 times)
Pathology
(4 times)
GBM (7 times)
LL (5 times)
LRE (5 times)
1980 Increased permeability of the glomerular basement membrane to ferritin after removal of glycosaminoglycans (heparan sulfate) by enzyme digestion.
69  laryngeal dystonia
(17 times)
Otolaryngology
(6 times)
BoNT (4 times)
CD (2 times)
AdLD (1 time)
1986 Episodic laryngeal dyskinesia. Clinical and psychiatric characterization.
70  learning difficulties
(17 times)
Psychology
(4 times)
DD (2 times)
TD (2 times)
AP (1 time)
1987 Comparison of visual characteristics in children with and without learning difficulties.
71  light/12-h dark
(17 times)
Ophthalmology
(5 times)
SCN (3 times)
DD (2 times)
ELGs (2 times)
1994 Diurnal and circadian changes of serotonin in the suprachiasmatic nuclei: regulation by light and an endogenous pacemaker.
72  lockdown
(17 times)
Pediatrics
(2 times)
COVID-19 (4 times)
PLD (3 times)
UL (2 times)
2020 Changing clinical patterns of Rhegmatogeneous Retinal Detachments during the COVID19 pandemic lockdown in the North West of the UK.
73  longitudinal direction
(17 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(7 times)
MD (7 times)
TD (7 times)
CD (6 times)
2012 Influence of the measurement method of features in ultrasound images of the thyroid in the diagnosis of Hashimoto's disease.
74  laser desorption
(16 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(14 times)
LTP (3 times)
MALDI (3 times)
FTMS (2 times)
1991 Investigation of UV matrix-assisted laser desorption fourier transform mass spectrometry for peptides.
75  lateral displacement
(16 times)
Dentistry
(3 times)
AD (2 times)
GD (2 times)
SD (2 times)
2004 Foot-ground reaction force during resistive exercise in parabolic flight.
76  light-dark conditions
(16 times)
Neurology
(5 times)
DD (5 times)
SCN (2 times)
AA-NAT (1 time)
1988 Cytochrome oxidase histochemistry in the effect of light deprivation on the fly visual system.
77  light-darkness
(16 times)
Endocrinology
(3 times)
EPM (2 times)
SCN (2 times)
2,3BDZ (1 time)
1978 A daily rhythm in the behavioural sensitivity of the female rat to oestradiol.
78  limited
(16 times)
Neoplasms
(10 times)
SCLC (9 times)
ED (6 times)
NSCLC (2 times)
1986 Ambulatory combination chemotherapy with oral etoposide and cisplatin for advanced non small cell lung carcinoma patients. A phase II study.
79  living donation
(16 times)
Transplantation
(9 times)
DCD (2 times)
DD (2 times)
BD (1 time)
2002 Renal allograft survival in transplant recipients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
80  lymphocyte-defined
(16 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(11 times)
SD (7 times)
MLC (5 times)
MHC (4 times)
1972 Serologically defined and lymphocyte-defined components of the major histocompatibility complex in the mouse.
81  light-duty
(15 times)
Environmental Health
(11 times)
HD (10 times)
PM (4 times)
CO (3 times)
1988 Effects of diesel exhaust particles on chromosome aberration, sister chromatid exchange and morphological transformation in cultured mammalian cells.
82  long daylength
(15 times)
Endocrinology
(5 times)
SD (13 times)
3'-UTR (1 time)
6-MBOA (1 time)
1993 Response to short photoperiod and spontaneous sexual recrudescence in the lesser mouse lemur: role of olfactory bulb removal.
83  diffusion length
(14 times)
Chemistry
(5 times)
TTA (3 times)
UC (2 times)
CT (1 time)
2012 Exploring the heterogeneous interfaces in organic or ruthenium dye-sensitized liquid- and solid-state solar cells.
84  limit dextrinase
(14 times)
Molecular Biology
(4 times)
LDI (5 times)
ABA (1 time)
AGL (1 time)
2004 Antisense downregulation of the barley limit dextrinase inhibitor modulates starch granule size distribution, starch composition and amylopectin structure.
85  long duration
(14 times)
Cardiology
(2 times)
SD (6 times)
CI (2 times)
HI (2 times)
1994 Angiotensin II neurotransmitter actions in paraventricular nucleus are potentiated by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor.
86  Lymphedema-distichiasis
(14 times)
Genetics, Medical
(9 times)
BCD (1 time)
CI (1 time)
DM (1 time)
1999 A gene for lymphedema-distichiasis maps to 16q24.3.
87  lymphoproliferative disorders
(14 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
IBD (3 times)
AML (2 times)
CD (2 times)
1976 Human spleen heme oxygenase in normal, hemolytic and other pathological states.
88  lactase deficiency
(13 times)
Therapeutics
(3 times)
IBS (3 times)
LI (3 times)
SLD (2 times)
1977 Lactase deficiency--a comparative study of diagnostic methods.
89  left dominant
(13 times)
Medicine
(4 times)
RD (9 times)
CD (5 times)
CAD (2 times)
2007 Coronary dominance and prognosis of patients with acute coronary syndrome.
90  light deprivation
(13 times)
Neurology
(6 times)
MD (2 times)
TMS (2 times)
AGB (1 time)
2003 Effects of light deprivation on recovery from neglect and extinction induced by unilateral lesions of the medial agranular cortex and dorsocentral striatum.
91  light drinkers
(13 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(6 times)
BD (3 times)
HD (3 times)
MD (3 times)
1987 Effect of chronic ethanol administration and abstinence on serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin and growth hormone concentrations in rats with high and low ethanol intake.
92  light/dark regimen
(13 times)
Endocrinology
(5 times)
AOE (1 time)
AOS (1 time)
CS (1 time)
1984 Influence of continuous illumination on estrous cycle of rats: time course of changes in levels of gonadotropins and ovarian steroids until occurrence of persistent estrus.
93  laterodorsal thalamic nucleus
(12 times)
Neurology
(7 times)
ATN (1 time)
AV (1 time)
CL (1 time)
1979 Afferent connections of the laterodorsal thalamic nucleus in the rat.
94  light density
(12 times)
Hematology
(3 times)
BM (2 times)
CGRP (2 times)
HH (2 times)
1988 5-fluorodeoxyuridine decreases the effect of arabinofuranosyl-cytosine in undifferentiated human B lymphocytes.
95  longitudinal diameter
(12 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
TD (7 times)
APD (3 times)
CT (2 times)
2014 Genetic divergence among accessions of melon from traditional agriculture of the Brazilian Northeast.
96  lucid dreaming
(12 times)
Cognitive Science
(8 times)
REMS (3 times)
BD (1 time)
FA (1 time)
2013 Neurobiology and clinical implications of lucid dreaming.
97  labyrinthine-defective
(11 times)
Brain
(5 times)
CCW (1 time)
COR (1 time)
CW (1 time)
1989 Circularvection about earth-horizontal axes in bilateral labyrinthine-defective subjects.
98  laser Doppler flowmetry
(11 times)
Vascular Diseases
(4 times)
SLS (2 times)
TEWL (2 times)
APG (1 time)
1986 The value of laser Doppler velocimetry and transcutaneous oxygen tension determination in predicting healing of ischemic forefoot ulcerations and amputations in diabetic and nondiabetic patients.
99  latissimus dorsi flap
(11 times)
General Surgery
(8 times)
DIEP (2 times)
EXP (2 times)
LTD (2 times)
1997 Serum creatine kinase in fasciocutaneous and musculocutaneous flap surgery.
100  liquid digestate
(11 times)
Environmental Health
(6 times)
ACs (1 time)
AD (1 time)
BMP (1 time)
2016 Benchmarking sample preparation/digestion protocols reveals tube-gel being a fast and repeatable method for quantitative proteomics.