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Abbreviation: LL
Appearance Frequency: 3438 time(s)
Long forms: 621

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
lumbar lordosis
(733 times)
Orthopedics
(323 times)
PI (420 times)
PT (340 times)
TK (278 times)
2004 Spondylolisthesis, pelvic incidence, and spinopelvic balance: a correlation study.
longissimus lumborum
(228 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(131 times)
SM (50 times)
PM (47 times)
GM (28 times)
1990 Recommended terminology for the muscle commonly designated 'longissimus dorsi'.
lepromatous leprosy
(201 times)
Tropical Medicine
(73 times)
BL (44 times)
BT (33 times)
ENL (26 times)
1975 Association of amyloidosis with erythema nodosum leprosum reactions and recurrent neutrophil leucocytosis in leprosy.
lower limb
(140 times)
Neurology
(16 times)
UL (55 times)
CI (12 times)
MG (5 times)
1985 Ultrasonic systolic blood pressure gradient between upper and lower limbs in normal term Chinese neonates.
low light
(121 times)
Botany
(41 times)
HL (87 times)
PSII (12 times)
NPQ (11 times)
1988 Nitrate content, amino acid composition and growth of yellow birch seedlings in response to light and nitrogen source.
leg length
(79 times)
Orthopedics
(15 times)
SH (17 times)
THA (12 times)
SDS (9 times)
1987 Effect of spinal irradiation on growth.
lymphoblastic lymphoma
(59 times)
Neoplasms
(25 times)
ALL (21 times)
NHL (9 times)
BL (8 times)
1975 Therapeutic effect of Leo 1031, an alkylating corticosteroid ester; in lymphoproliferative disorders. II. Lymphocytic lymphoma.
lymphoid leukosis
(59 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(28 times)
MD (12 times)
ALV (8 times)
ML (7 times)
1965 [The pleuropulmonary manifestations of lymphoid leukemia (LL)].
Landau level
(39 times)
Nanotechnology
(17 times)
QH (6 times)
h-BN (3 times)
BP (2 times)
2004 Electron-spin domains: magnetic enhancement of superconductivity.
10  laser lithotripsy
(38 times)
Urology
(15 times)
PL (16 times)
EHL (9 times)
POP (5 times)
1994 Treatment of ureteric stones. Comparison of laser and pneumatic lithotripsy.
11  lateral lemniscus
(37 times)
Neurology
(13 times)
IC (22 times)
CN (10 times)
SOC (10 times)
1978 Ascending and intrinsic projections of the superior olivary complex in the cat.
12  laterolateral
(37 times)
Neoplasms
(8 times)
AP (26 times)
CC (9 times)
LI (5 times)
1976 [Cardioangiographic evaluation of the left ventricular volume: an analysis of the various formulas used (author's transl)].
13  low blood pressure
(37 times)
Vascular Diseases
(14 times)
LH (14 times)
BP (8 times)
SBP (6 times)
1980 [Development of early kidney lesions in genetically hypertensive, normotensive and hypotensive rats].
14  left lobe
(35 times)
Transplantation
(17 times)
RL (25 times)
LDLT (12 times)
LLS (6 times)
1996 Case of a parathyroidectomized patient observed longitudinally by ultrasonography. Relationship between the growth rates and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor contents in the parathyroid glands.
15  long latency
(34 times)
Neurology
(19 times)
SL (15 times)
ML (11 times)
CFP (3 times)
1981 Neural development in children: a neurophysiological study.
16  lesion length
(32 times)
Cardiology
(15 times)
MLD (16 times)
FFR (14 times)
QCA (9 times)
2000 The relative influence of lesion length and other stenosis morphologies on procedural success of coronary intervention.
17  lactation length
(31 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(18 times)
CI (8 times)
AFC (4 times)
DMY (4 times)
2000 Influence of equine chorionic gonadotropin on weaning-to-estrus interval and estrus duration in early-weaned, primiparous, female swine.
18  late luteal
(30 times)
Endocrinology
(10 times)
EL (15 times)
EF (10 times)
ML (7 times)
1985 Pulsatile gonadotropin secretion in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea: evidence that reduced frequency of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion is the mechanism of persistent anovulation.
19  landfill leachate
(29 times)
Environmental Health
(23 times)
COD (4 times)
BMP (2 times)
CAT (2 times)
2009 Chromium in soil layers and plants on closed landfill site after landfill leachate application.
20  left lateral
(28 times)
Gastroenterology
(6 times)
RL (13 times)
AP (3 times)
AS (3 times)
1991 [The surgical section of the bundle of Kent as an operative treatment of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: apropos a series of 82 operated cases].
21  lesion load
(27 times)
Neurology
(22 times)
MS (24 times)
MRI (9 times)
EDSS (5 times)
1999 Reproducibility of brain MRI lesion volume measurements in multiple sclerosis using a local thresholding technique: effects of formal operator training.
22  larger-later
(26 times)
Behavioral Sciences
(12 times)
SS (25 times)
ADHD (2 times)
NAc (2 times)
2006 Delay aversion but preference for large and rare rewards in two choice tasks: implications for the measurement of self-control parameters.
23  late loss
(25 times)
Cardiology
(19 times)
DES (11 times)
EES (6 times)
BMS (5 times)
2002 UVB-activated psoralen reduces luminal narrowing after balloon dilation because of inhibition of constrictive remodeling.
24  lateral line
(24 times)
Biology
(7 times)
aLLn (2 times)
FL (2 times)
HCs (2 times)
1998 Morphological and cytological ontogenesis of the ampullae of lorenzini and lateral line canals in the Oman shark, Iago omanensis Norman 1939 (Triakidae), from the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea.
25  low-level
(21 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
HL (14 times)
ML (3 times)
BM (2 times)
1998 Spike responses of sympathetic vertebral nerve activities during stimulation of the pressor dorsomedial and rostral ventrolateral medulla differ in cats.
26  Lewis lung
(20 times)
Neoplasms
(15 times)
PC (2 times)
Pt (2 times)
AAS (1 time)
1978 Effectiveness of clinically active antineoplastic drugs in a surgical-adjuvant chemotherapy treatment regimen using the Lewis Lung (LL) carcinoma.
27  Look-Locker
(20 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(17 times)
MOLLI (4 times)
IR (3 times)
ASL (2 times)
2004 Modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) for high-resolution T1 mapping of the heart.
28  laminated layer
(17 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(6 times)
DCs (3 times)
pLL (3 times)
LPS (2 times)
2001 Major carbohydrate antigen of Echinococcus multilocularis induces an immunoglobulin G response independent of alphabeta+ CD4+ T cells.
29  leukemia-lymphoma
(17 times)
Neoplasms
(8 times)
MSC (3 times)
EBV (2 times)
ECM (2 times)
1992 Characterization of heterotypic adherence between transformed human lymphoblastic cells and marrow stromal cells: VCAM-1 is a ligand for one of the leukemia cell adhesion proteins.
30  low-low
(17 times)
Environmental Health
(3 times)
HH (14 times)
LH (11 times)
HL (10 times)
1990 Acid precipitation and food quality: inhibition of growth and survival in black ducks and mallards by dietary aluminum, calcium, and phosphorus.
31  Lactococcus lactis
(16 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(3 times)
BLG (2 times)
LAB (2 times)
T1D (2 times)
1995 The isolation of lactococcal promoters and their use in investigating bacterial luciferase synthesis in Lactococcus lactis.
32  lysolecithin
(16 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(4 times)
ICSI (4 times)
PC (3 times)
PE (3 times)
1966 Fatty acids in phospholipids isolated from human red cells.
33  lumbar lordosis angle
(15 times)
Orthopedics
(7 times)
SS (10 times)
PT (9 times)
PI (7 times)
2008 The combined use of a posterior dynamic transpedicular stabilization system and a prosthetic disc nucleus device in treating lumbar degenerative disc disease with disc herniations.
34  left lung
(14 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
RL (10 times)
ANOVA (2 times)
CT (2 times)
1990 Effect of increased intracranial pressure on regional hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.
35  long-long
(14 times)
Neurology
(6 times)
SS (10 times)
SL (5 times)
LS (4 times)
2000 Dopamine D4 receptor gene and severity of dependence.
36  lowlanders
(14 times)
Environmental Health
(3 times)
HL (5 times)
HA (3 times)
HAPH (3 times)
1978 Changes in EEG pattern during acclimatization to high altitude (3500 m) in man.
37  Lewis lung carcinoma
(13 times)
Neoplasms
(6 times)
MST (2 times)
AL (1 time)
CP (1 time)
1977 Combinations of tetrahydrouridine and cytosine arabinoside in mouse tumors.
38  lipid-lowering
(13 times)
Therapeutics
(2 times)
AH (6 times)
BPL (3 times)
CVD (2 times)
2005 Predictors of adherence with antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy.
39  longissimus thoracis et lumborum
(13 times)
Meat
(13 times)
SM (3 times)
AF (1 time)
AH (1 time)
1996 The relationship between muscularity, muscle:bone ratio and cut dimensions in male and female lamb carcasses and the measurement of muscularity using image analysis.
40  lower lobe
(13 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(3 times)
UL (5 times)
ML (2 times)
RL (2 times)
1988 Site of airway obstruction: effects on the acoustic impedance of excised pig lungs.
41  Luttinger liquid
(13 times)
Medicine
(9 times)
AF (1 time)
CDW (1 time)
DFT (1 time)
2001 Two-dimensional anisotropic non-Fermi-liquid phase of coupled Luttinger liquids.
42  lateral longissimus
(12 times)
Brain
(5 times)
ML (5 times)
TS (3 times)
FG (2 times)
1981 Supraspinal and segmental input to lumbar epaxial motoneurons in the rat.
43  leaf lifespan
(11 times)
Botany
(8 times)
LMA (5 times)
PNUE (2 times)
CC (1 time)
2002 Leaves at low versus high rainfall: coordination of structure, lifespan and physiology.
44  log-likelihood
(11 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
AIC (4 times)
BIC (3 times)
ARIMA (2 times)
1990 Quantitative analysis of tomographic stress thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams: a multicenter trial.
45  lining layer
(10 times)
Rheumatology
(7 times)
RA (7 times)
SL (5 times)
OA (4 times)
1976 Morphological and physical basis for lung surfactant action.
46  long allele
(10 times)
Psychology
(5 times)
AR (1 time)
ERalpha, ERbeta (1 time)
GE (1 time)
2005 Association of repeat polymorphisms in the estrogen receptors alpha, beta, and androgen receptor genes with knee osteoarthritis.
47  long-lived
(10 times)
Geriatrics
(1 time)
SL (4 times)
AIA (1 time)
ASCs (1 time)
2009 Sonography-guided positioning of intravenous long lines in neonates.
48  low-load
(10 times)
Sports Medicine
(3 times)
HL (6 times)
BFR (4 times)
1RM (1 time)
2002 Interference with performance of a response selection task that has no working memory component: an rTMS comparison of the dorsolateral prefrontal and medial frontal cortex.
49  lateral lamina
(9 times)
Otolaryngology
(6 times)
ET (6 times)
ML (5 times)
TVPM (4 times)
1991 Abnormalities of lateral cartilaginous lamina and lumen of eustachian tube in cases of cleft palate.
50  light load
(9 times)
Physiology
(5 times)
HL (6 times)
BFR (2 times)
1RM (1 time)
2009 Contraction intensity and feeding affect collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis rates differently in human skeletal muscle.
51  linear lesions
(9 times)
Cardiology
(7 times)
AF (5 times)
PVI (5 times)
SR (2 times)
2000 Acute electrophysiologic effects and antifibrillatory actions of the long linear lesions in the right atrium in a sheep model.
52  liquid limit
(9 times)
Environmental Health
(3 times)
PL (5 times)
EC (2 times)
PI (2 times)
2008 Comparison of properties of traditional and accelerated carbonated solidified/stabilized contaminated soils.
53  lumen loss
(9 times)
Cardiology
(5 times)
DES (3 times)
TLR (3 times)
IVUS (2 times)
2006 A prospective randomized antiplatelet trial of cilostazol versus clopidogrel in patients with bare metal stent.
54  Lyon low blood pressure
(9 times)
Vascular Diseases
(7 times)
LH (7 times)
LN (4 times)
BP (2 times)
1984 Specific decrease of secretin/VIP-stimulated adenylate cyclase in the heart from the Lyon strain of hypertensive rats.
55  labiolingual
(8 times)
Dentistry
(6 times)
MD (7 times)
CLP (2 times)
OG (2 times)
2001 Permanent tooth crown dimensions in prematurely born children.
56  Lake Louise
(8 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
AMS (8 times)
AMS-C (2 times)
BNP (2 times)
2004 Early fluid retention and severe acute mountain sickness.
57  Leucaena leucocephala
(8 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(6 times)
MO (2 times)
PP (2 times)
AC (1 time)
2004 Effect of supplementation of a basal diet of maize stover with Erythrina variegata, Gliricidia sepium or Leucaena leucocephala on feed intake and digestibility by goats.
58  Listing's law
(8 times)
Ophthalmology
(5 times)
VOR (6 times)
LP (5 times)
UVD (3 times)
2001 Chameleon eye position obeys Listing's law.
59  lotus leaf
(8 times)
Nanotechnology
(2 times)
AMPK (1 time)
CA (1 time)
CNTs (1 time)
2010 Antioxidant activity of bovine and porcine meat treated with extracts from edible lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) rhizome knot and leaf.
60  low ligation
(8 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
HL (7 times)
IMA (4 times)
AL (2 times)
1995 Does level of ligation influence results in a murine biliary obstruction model?
61  low line
(8 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(6 times)
HL (6 times)
ThrWtLay (2 times)
AFB1 (1 time)
1991 Genetic selection for aflatoxin B1 resistance influences chicken T-cell and thymocyte proliferation.
62  lamina lucida
(7 times)
Dermatology
(4 times)
LD (4 times)
BMZ (2 times)
IEM (2 times)
1989 The presence of intra-lamina lucida blister formation in epidermolysis bullosa acquisita: possible role of leukocytes.
63  left leg
(7 times)
Neurology
(1 time)
RL (6 times)
ECG (2 times)
AB (1 time)
2008 Recording electrocardiograms using 3-limb lead cables instead of the standard 4: a modification to minimize incorrect electrode placements.
64  lepromatous lepromatous
(7 times)
Dermatology
(4 times)
BB (5 times)
BL (5 times)
BT (5 times)
1988 Study of serum zinc level in leprosy.
65  linalool
(7 times)
Chemistry
(4 times)
LA (2 times)
PE (2 times)
BA (1 time)
1999 Effect of Types of Perfume Compounds on the Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance Temperature.
66  luciferin-luciferase
(7 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
ATP (2 times)
ATPases (1 time)
BCECs (1 time)
1997 Enzymatic treatment to eliminate the extracellular ATP for improving the detectability of bacterial intracellular ATP.
67  luminal loss
(7 times)
Cardiology
(3 times)
BMS (3 times)
MACE (2 times)
QCA (2 times)
2007 Small coronary arteries treated with sirolimus-eluting stents: one-year results of the PORTO multicentre registry.
68  lateral
(6 times)
Sports Medicine
(3 times)
AP (2 times)
ML (2 times)
ACL (1 time)
1995 A comparison of clinical and radiological parameters with two arthroscopic techniques for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
69  leaf litter
(6 times)
Environmental Health
(3 times)
BSL (1 time)
CD (1 time)
CP (1 time)
2010 Nutritional composition and condensed tannin concentration changes as browse leaves become litter.
70  Ligustrum lucidum
(6 times)
Urology
(1 time)
AM (3 times)
AFB1 (1 time)
ANC (1 time)
1991 Chinese medicinal herbs reverse macrophage suppression induced by urological tumors.
71  lipid layer
(6 times)
Metabolism
(1 time)
iNKT (1 time)
LD (1 time)
LLT (1 time)
2005 Integral lipid in human hair follicle.
72  low language
(6 times)
Speech-Language Pathology
(3 times)
DLD (4 times)
TD (3 times)
HRQoL (1 time)
2015 Rethinking the connection between working memory and language impairment.
73  lower leg
(6 times)
Traumatology
(1 time)
BMI (1 time)
CIREN (1 time)
FA (1 time)
1992 Percutaneous absorption and metabolism of lonapalene in psoriatic skin.
74  lyoluminescence
(6 times)
Biophysics
(4 times)
ML (2 times)
TL (1 time)
1977 Lyoluminescence dosimetry in photon and fast neutron beams.
75  T1-lesion load
(6 times)
Neurology
(6 times)
MS (6 times)
BPF (4 times)
EDSS (4 times)
2003 Correlation of sexual dysfunction and brain magnetic resonance imaging in multiple sclerosis.
76  lactate level
(5 times)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
AUC (1 time)
BE (1 time)
CRS-HIPEC (1 time)
2014 Elevated lactate level and shock index in nontraumatic hypotensive patients presenting to the emergency department.
77  lactate/lipids
(5 times)
Radiology
(2 times)
Cho (5 times)
Cr (5 times)
NAA (5 times)
2002 Analysis of the spatial characteristics of metabolic abnormalities in newly diagnosed glioma patients.
78  large litters
(5 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
SL (3 times)
CCK (1 time)
CL (1 time)
1994 Metabolic responses to episodes of partial dietary restriction in undernourished Wistar rats.
79  late lactation
(5 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(2 times)
AST (1 time)
BUP (1 time)
CMT (1 time)
2007 Phenotypic relationships of common health disorders in dairy cows to lactation persistency estimated from daily milk weights.
80  later-larger
(5 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(2 times)
SS (5 times)
ACC (1 time)
AD (1 time)
2004 Impulsive choice in inbred strains of mice.
81  leaf longevity
(5 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
LMA (2 times)
DGVMs (1 time)
DHL (1 time)
2015 Leaf and stem economics spectra drive diversity of functional plant traits in a dynamic global vegetation model.
82  lentil lectin
(5 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(3 times)
Con A (5 times)
PHA (5 times)
BSS (3 times)
1984 Differential binding of lectins to lymphopoietic and myelopoietic cells in murine marrow as revealed by flow cytometry.
83  lepromatous leprosy patients
(5 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(2 times)
ENL (3 times)
MDT (2 times)
BI (1 time)
1993 In vitro tumor necrosis factor production by mononuclear cells from lepromatous leprosy patients and from patients with erythema nodosum leprosum.
84  leukocyte locomotion
(5 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
RA (1 time)
1980 Mechanism of leukocyte locomotion in hemophilia.
85  linear-linear
(5 times)
Chemistry
(3 times)
SL (3 times)
BO (1 time)
CFI (1 time)
1996 Cataract in atomic bomb survivors based on a threshold model and the occurrence of severe epilation.
86  locking-loop
(5 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(5 times)
ES (3 times)
SDFT (3 times)
ATG (1 time)
2019 Biomechanical comparison of three epitendinous suture patterns as adjuncts to a core locking loop suture for repair of canine flexor tendon injuries.
87  log-linear
(5 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(3 times)
ARLO (1 time)
ASMR (1 time)
COI (1 time)
2008 Diffusion measurements and diffusion tensor imaging with noisy magnitude data.
88  longissimus lumborum muscle
(5 times)
Meat
(3 times)
BFE (1 time)
FASN (1 time)
FCR (1 time)
1998 Effect of genetic origin, diet and weaning weight on carcass composition, muscle physicochemical and histochemical traits in the rabbit.
89  longitudinal length
(5 times)
Cardiology
(2 times)
CT (2 times)
TA (2 times)
BL (1 time)
2008 The role of false lumen size in prediction of in-hospital complications after acute type B aortic dissection.
90  low licking
(5 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
HL (3 times)
OB (2 times)
CAT (1 time)
2007 Effects of maternal care on the development, emotionality, and reproductive functions in male and female rats.
91  lumbar laminectomy
(5 times)
Neurosurgery
(3 times)
ACDF (2 times)
CMS (2 times)
CA-SID (1 time)
1996 Lumbar sympathectomy for causalgia secondary to lumbar laminectomy.
92  L-leucine
(4 times)
Pharmacology
(3 times)
RH (3 times)
DVS (2 times)
NGI (2 times)
2016 L-Leucine as an excipient against moisture on in vitro aerosolization performances of highly hygroscopic spray-dried powders.
93  lacunar lesions
(4 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
WMH (2 times)
BPF (1 time)
CADASIL (1 time)
2008 Cortical changes in cerebral small vessel diseases: a 3D MRI study of cortical morphology in CADASIL.
94  left lobectomy
(4 times)
Transplantation
(2 times)
RL (3 times)
LLS (2 times)
AF (1 time)
1986 Results of 32 major hepatic resections for primary and secondary malignancies of the liver.
95  left-left
(4 times)
Behavioral Sciences
(1 time)
LR (2 times)
RR (2 times)
CCs (1 time)
1997 Hemiregional variations in facial expression of emotions.
96  Lennert lymphoma
(4 times)
Dermatology
(2 times)
Hk (1 time)
PTCL/NOS (1 time)
SR (1 time)
1981 [Pathomorphology and clinico-pathology of Lennert lymphoma].
97  lifelong learning
(4 times)
Education
(2 times)
DAL (1 time)
FL (1 time)
GDM (1 time)
2014 Lifelong learning: Established concepts and evolving values.
98  lipid and lactate
(4 times)
Radiology
(4 times)
Cho (4 times)
Cr (4 times)
NAA (4 times)
2006 3T 1H-MR spectroscopy in grading of cerebral gliomas: comparison of short and intermediate echo time sequences.
99  local linearization
(4 times)
Brain
(2 times)
BOLD (1 time)
DEM (1 time)
EEG (1 time)
2006 Nonlinear local electrovascular coupling. II: From data to neuronal masses.
100  long-latency responses
(4 times)
Neurology
(4 times)
EMG (2 times)
HD (2 times)
TA (2 times)
1985 Medium- and long-latency responses to displacements of the ankle joint in patients with spinal and central lesions.