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Abbreviation: MDI
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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
metered-dose inhaler
(765 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(360 times)
COPD (64 times)
DPI (63 times)
CFC (39 times)
1982 Response to bronchodilator drug administration by a new reservoir aerosol delivery system and a review of other auxiliary delivery systems.
Mental Development Index
(404 times)
Pediatrics
(179 times)
PDI (236 times)
BSID-II (41 times)
BSID (30 times)
1978 Fetal malnutrition: an experimental study of its consequences on infant development in two caregiving environments.
multiple daily injections
(370 times)
Endocrinology
(234 times)
CSII (243 times)
T1D (57 times)
CGM (50 times)
1983 Diets for insulin pump and multiple daily injection therapy.
methylene diphenyl diisocyanate
(229 times)
Occupational Medicine
(43 times)
MDA (31 times)
TDI (30 times)
HDI (23 times)
1980 Mutagenic action of isocyanates used in the production of polyurethanes.
Major Depression Inventory
(123 times)
Psychiatry
(30 times)
QoL (8 times)
PPS (5 times)
HADS (4 times)
1999 Health-related quality of life measurements in the assessment of pain clinic results.
multiple daily insulin injections
(94 times)
Endocrinology
(54 times)
CSII (49 times)
CGM (13 times)
T1D (10 times)
1997 Effects of multiple daily insulin injections and intraperitoneal insulin therapy on cholesteryl ester transfer and lipoprotein lipase activities in NIDDM.
microbiologically documented infection
(42 times)
Neoplasms
(13 times)
CDI (19 times)
FUO (15 times)
FN (8 times)
1994 [Empirical antimicrobial therapy in neutropenic patients. Results of a multicenter study by the Infections in Hematology Study Group of the Paul Ehrlich Society].
multidirectional instability
(38 times)
Orthopedics
(21 times)
MRA (4 times)
GH (2 times)
ABER (1 time)
1995 Multidirectional instability: current concepts.
manic-depressive illness
(30 times)
Psychiatry
(16 times)
TH (2 times)
AUC (1 time)
BPD (1 time)
1978 Affective disorder in adolescence: issues in misdiagnosis.
10  methylisobutylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin
(20 times)
Biochemistry
(5 times)
FAS (3 times)
SCD (3 times)
NO (2 times)
1985 Flow cytometric analysis of DNA replication during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.
11  multiple daily insulin
(18 times)
Endocrinology
(9 times)
CSII (10 times)
T1DM (7 times)
BMI (3 times)
1996 Implantable insulin pump vs multiple-dose insulin for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a randomized clinical trial. Department of Veterans Affairs Implantable Insulin Pump Study Group.
12  Myositis Damage Index
(18 times)
Rheumatology
(13 times)
DAS (6 times)
JDM (5 times)
DM (4 times)
2003 International consensus outcome measures for patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Development and initial validation of myositis activity and damage indices in patients with adult onset disease.
13  methylene diisocyanate
(16 times)
Toxicology
(3 times)
TDI (5 times)
HDI (3 times)
PU (3 times)
1985 Respiratory abnormalities among workers in an iron and steel foundry.
14  modulation detection interference
(16 times)
Audiology
(13 times)
AM (2 times)
CMR (2 times)
CDD (1 time)
1990 A comparison among three measures of cross-spectral processing of amplitude modulation with tonal signals.
15  Mini dental implants
(13 times)
Dentistry
(7 times)
CRD (1 time)
DS (1 time)
FE (1 time)
2008 Comparison of detachment forces of two implant overdenture attachment types: effect of detachment speed.
16  motor deficit index
(13 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
I/R (4 times)
IR (2 times)
MDA (2 times)
2011 Magnesium sulfate does not protect spinal cord against ischemic injury.
17  microbial dysbiosis index
(12 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
OR (4 times)
CI (3 times)
GC (3 times)
2018 Small Bowel Transit and Altered Gut Microbiota in Patients With Liver Cirrhosis.
18  multiple daily injections of insulin
(12 times)
Endocrinology
(5 times)
CSII (7 times)
CI (3 times)
HbA1c (2 times)
2007 Level of glycemic control and pregnancy outcome in type 1 diabetes: a comparison between multiple daily insulin injections and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusions.
19  measurement-device-independent
(9 times)
Biophysics
(4 times)
QKD (7 times)
CV-QKD (2 times)
DI (1 time)
2014 Modeling a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution system.
20  multiple-dose insulin
(9 times)
Endocrinology
(5 times)
CSII (4 times)
T1D (2 times)
CBG (1 time)
1998 The Veterans Affairs Implantable Insulin Pump Study: effect on cardiovascular risk factors.
21  metabolism-dependent inhibition
(8 times)
Pharmacology
(5 times)
HLMs (2 times)
7-BQ (1 time)
CO (1 time)
2003 Fluorine substitution can block CYP3A4 metabolism-dependent inhibition: identification of (S)-N-[1-(4-fluoro-3- morpholin-4-ylphenyl)ethyl]-3- (4-fluorophenyl)acrylamide as an orally bioavailable KCNQ2 opener devoid of CYP3A4 metabolism-dependent inhibition.
22  model of diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate
(8 times)
Toxicology
(6 times)
BAL (3 times)
BN (3 times)
ACh (1 time)
1984 Diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI)-induced asthma: evaluation of the immunologic responses and application of an animal model of isocyanate sensitivity.
23  Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory
(8 times)
Sports Medicine
(3 times)
BDS (2 times)
MD (2 times)
BBs (1 time)
2002 Muscle dysmorphia in elite-level power lifters and bodybuilders: a test of differences within a conceptual model.
24  diphenylmethane di-isocyanate
(7 times)
Toxicology
(2 times)
TDI (5 times)
BAL (1 time)
FTL (1 time)
1979 Toluene di-isocyanate-induced asthma. I. Reactions to TDI, MDI, HDI and histamine.
25  manic-depressive insanity
(7 times)
Psychiatry
(6 times)
DP (2 times)
BD (1 time)
DSM III (1 time)
1986 Inpatient diagnoses during Adolf Meyer's tenure as director of the Henry Phipps Psychiatric Clinic, 1913-1940.
26  mass dispersion index
(7 times)
Cardiology
(1 time)
AIR (1 time)
CTV (1 time)
dB (1 time)
2003 Biological characteristics of cell lines of human dental alveolus.
27  monocyte differentiation-inducing
(7 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
IFN (2 times)
IL (2 times)
TNF (2 times)
2006 Characterization of monocyte differentiation-inducing (MDI) factors derived from human fetal membrane chorion cells undergoing apoptosis after influenza virus infection.
28  multidirectional shoulder instability
(7 times)
Physical Medicine
(2 times)
heds (3 times)
HSD (2 times)
EMG (1 time)
2001 Translation of the glenohumeral joint in patients with multidirectional and posterior instability: awake examination versus examination under anesthesia.
29  maternally-derived immunity
(6 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(5 times)
HI (3 times)
ADWG (1 time)
AGP (1 time)
1991 Use of an infectious bronchitis virus and Escherichia coli model infection to assess the ability to vaccinate successfully against infectious bronchitis in the presence of maternally-derived immunity.
30  maximum deflection index
(6 times)
Cardiology
(5 times)
DGCV (4 times)
ECG (3 times)
IDT (2 times)
2015 How To Identify & Treat Epicardial Origin Of Outflow Tract Tachycardias.
31  Michelson Doppler Imager
(6 times)
Science
(1 time)
HMI (2 times)
SOHO (2 times)
EFRs (1 time)
1999 In Search of Emerging Magnetic Flux underneath the Solar Surface with Acoustic Imaging.
32  Multiscale Dissociation Inventory
(6 times)
Psychology
(3 times)
CDS (1 time)
DC (1 time)
DES (1 time)
2005 Is dissociation a multidimensional construct? Data from the Multiscale Dissociation Inventory.
33  mean daily intake
(5 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
BaPeq (1 time)
Cd (1 time)
CLEA (1 time)
2004 Vitamin D intakes in 18-64-y-old Irish adults.
34  multiple daily subcutaneous insulin injections
(5 times)
Internal Medicine
(1 time)
CSII (2 times)
EOS (1 time)
HbA1c (1 time)
2004 Insulin aspart: a review of its use in the management of type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus.
35  Myelopathy Disability Index
(5 times)
Neurosurgery
(3 times)
CSM (4 times)
NDI (2 times)
CFRP (1 time)
1999 Quantitative assessment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy by a simple walking test.
36  Major Depression Index
(4 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(2 times)
PSS (2 times)
RPL (2 times)
CI (1 time)
2006 Parent gender and assessment of infant life quality.
37  medical device integration
(4 times)
Dentistry
(1 time)
CHC (1 time)
CI (1 time)
CMDS (1 time)
2015 Facilitating Virtual Health Management Using Medical Device Integration.
38  medicolegal death investigation
(4 times)
Forensic Pathology
(2 times)
ACSCO (1 time)
NAME (1 time)
SIDS (1 time)
1996 Medicolegal death investigator preemployment test development.
39  Middle Years Development Instrument
(4 times)
Psychiatry
(1 time)
BC (1 time)
2013 Development and Validation of the Middle Years Development Instrument (MDI): Assessing Children's Well-Being and Assets across Multiple Contexts.
40  multidimensionally impaired
(4 times)
Psychiatry
(3 times)
COS (2 times)
B-H (1 time)
BPRS (1 time)
1998 Brief report: association of sex chromosome anomalies with childhood-onset psychotic disorders.
41  multidose inhaler
(4 times)
Gastroenterology
(2 times)
EoE (2 times)
OVB (2 times)
COPD (1 time)
2002 What is the optimal treatment strategy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations?
42  Multiscore Depression Inventory
(4 times)
Psychology
(2 times)
BDI (1 time)
MAPI (1 time)
MS (1 time)
1983 A multi-institutional study of depression in family practice.
43  Mutation Database Initiative
(4 times)
Genetics, Medical
(4 times)
FBN1 (1 time)
HGVS (1 time)
MDB (1 time)
1999 Ethical guideposts for allelic variation databases.
44  5'-monodeiodinase
(3 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
PCBs (1 time)
PDI (1 time)
TCB (1 time)
1988 Ontogeny of thyroid hormone effect on tissue 5'-monodeiodinase activity in fetal sheep.
45  macrodiol, 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate
(3 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(1 time)
1,4-BD (1 time)
DMA (1 time)
DSC (1 time)
2015 Development of Robust and Recoverable Ultralow-Fouling Coatings Based on Poly(carboxybetaine) Ester Analogue.
46  mania-depression-interval
(3 times)
Psychiatry
(2 times)
DMI (3 times)
AAO (1 time)
BD (1 time)
1987 Sequence of affective polarity and lithium response: preliminary report on Munich sample.
47  manual dynamic irrigation
(3 times)
Dentistry
(2 times)
ANP (1 time)
CI (1 time)
LAI (1 time)
2010 Canal and isthmus debridement efficacies of two irrigant agitation techniques in a closed system.
48  material decomposition iodine
(3 times)
Radiology
(2 times)
CT (1 time)
DECT-R (1 time)
DS (1 time)
2019 Comparison of image quality and radiation doses between rapid kV-switching and dual-source DECT techniques in the chest.
49  MDI group
(3 times)
Diabetes Mellitus
(1 time)
CSII (2 times)
LIX (1 time)
PFM (1 time)
2002 Demonstrated use of metered-dose inhalers and peak flow meters by children and adolescents with acute asthma exacerbations.
50  medial displacement index
(3 times)
Clinical Medicine
(1 time)
OA (2 times)
bDMARDs (1 time)
early-OA (1 time)
2014 Changes of rabbit meniscus influenced by hyaline cartilage injury of osteoarthritis.
51  Medical Data Index
(3 times)
Health Services
(1 time)
IT (1 time)
1983 An investigation of the Medical Data Index (MDI) health questionnaire given to women VDT workers involved in advanced office automation--924 women clerks in a city bank with head and branch offices.
52  Mediterranean Diet Index
(3 times)
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
(1 time)
BNC4H (1 time)
FFQ (1 time)
FVI (1 time)
2009 Dietary intake, lung function and airway inflammation in Mexico City school children exposed to air pollutants.
53  microbiologically documented
(3 times)
Pediatrics
(2 times)
CSI (2 times)
CDI (1 time)
CFX (1 time)
2004 Ceftriaxone monotherapy for the treatment of febrile neutropenia in patients with solid tumors: a prospective study of 100 episodes.
54  modulation discrimination interference
(3 times)
Speech-Language Pathology
(2 times)
AM (1 time)
1992 Modulation discrimination interference and auditory grouping.
55  Bayleymental developmental index
(2 times)
Pediatrics
(2 times)
CGA (1 time)
CI (1 time)
ELBW (1 time)
2000 Neurodevelopment and predictors of outcomes of children with birth weights of less than 1000 g: 1992-1995.
56  Mahalanobis distance index
(2 times)
Psychology
(2 times)
CIs (1 time)
2011 Some supplementary methods for the analysis of the RBANS.
57  material containing diphenylmethane diisocyanate
(2 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(1 time)
GGO (1 time)
HP (1 time)
NSIP (1 time)
2009 [Three cases of isocyanate-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis with different HRCT findings].
58  material density iodine
(2 times)
Radiology
(1 time)
AUC (1 time)
DECT (1 time)
DeltaHU (1 time)
2019 Diagnostic performance of dual-energy CT and subtraction CT for renal lesion detection and characterization.
59  material deprivation index
(2 times)
Tropical Medicine
(1 time)
ANOVA (1 time)
EMSs (1 time)
LMA (1 time)
2017 Geospatial distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and its association with social determinants.
60  Maximum Daily Intake
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
ADIs (1 time)
MRLs (1 time)
2004 Environmental and potential health effects of growing leafy vegetables on soil irrigated using sewage sludge and effluent: a case of Zn and Cu.
61  Meat Destruction Indicator
(2 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
MSM (1 time)
2008 Development of a system to quantify muscle fibre destructuration.
62  mechanical dispersion index
(2 times)
Ultrasonography
(1 time)
GLS (2 times)
LV (2 times)
AHF (1 time)
2019 Changes in speckle-tracking-derived mechanical dispersion index are associated with 30-day readmissions in acute heart failure.
63  median dose interval
(2 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
SID (2 times)
EID (1 time)
MS (1 time)
2019 Extending the Interval of Natalizumab Dosing: Is Efficacy Preserved?
64  medical and dietary interventions
(2 times)
Health Services Research
(1 time)
CI (1 time)
RR (1 time)
SWL (1 time)
2017 Medical and dietary interventions for preventing recurrent urinary stones in children.
65  medical device incident
(2 times)
Technology, Pharmaceutical
(2 times)
ADR (2 times)
ADRs (1 time)
MDIs (1 time)
2020 Amid COVID-19: the importance of developing an positive adverse drug reaction (ADR) and medical device incident (MDI) reporting culture for Global Health and public safety.
66  mental disorder with impairment
(2 times)
Psychiatry
(1 time)
AD (1 time)
CI (1 time)
NHIS (1 time)
2015 Estimating the prevalence of any impairing childhood mental disorder in the national health interview survey.
67  Mental Index
(2 times)
Pharmacology
(2 times)
ADH (1 time)
ADH2 (1 time)
CYP2E1 (1 time)
1998 Alcohol dehydrogenase-2*3 allele protects against alcohol-related birth defects among African Americans.
68  methylation dysregulation index
(2 times)
Genetics
(2 times)
FGA (1 time)
2016 Epigenetic and genetic burden measures are associated with tumor characteristics in invasive breast carcinoma.
69  Microflow digital imaging
(2 times)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
--- 2010 Development of a microflow digital imaging assay to characterize protein particulates during storage of a high concentration IgG1 monoclonal antibody formulation.
70  micronutrient deficiency index
(2 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(2 times)
DBM (2 times)
OWOB (2 times)
LMICs (1 time)
2020 Intraindividual double burden of overweight and micronutrient deficiencies or anemia among preschool children.
71  mid-diastolic isthmus
(2 times)
Cardiology
(2 times)
EAM (2 times)
AT (1 time)
CHD (1 time)
2009 Electroanatomic mapping and ablation of macroreentrant atrial tachycardia: comparison between successfully and unsuccessfully treated cases.
72  minimum discrimination information
(2 times)
Physiology
(1 time)
HMGMMs (1 time)
HMMs (1 time)
MAP (1 time)
2007 Image segmentation using hidden Markov Gauss mixture models.
73  mitral deceleration index
(2 times)
Cardiology
(2 times)
CV (1 time)
DTE (1 time)
ELAP (1 time)
2009 Mitral E wave deceleration time to peak E velocity ratio and cardiovascular outcome in hypertensive patients during antihypertensive treatment (from the LIFE echo-substudy).
74  mixture discrimination index
(2 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
ICI (1 time)
ORNs (1 time)
1997 Multiple excitatory receptor types on individual olfactory neurons: implications for coding of mixtures in the spiny lobster.
75  modified discomfort index
(2 times)
Psychology
(1 time)
WBGT (3 times)
DI (1 time)
PHS (1 time)
1999 Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT)--to what extent is GT essential?
76  modified dyspnea index
(2 times)
Nursing
(1 time)
GSLTPAQ (1 time)
HRQoL (1 time)
ILD (1 time)
2004 Clinical impact of inspiratory muscle impairment in sarcoidosis.
77  Moral Disengagement Instrument
(2 times)
Pharmacy
(1 time)
--- 2013 Reliability and validity for the measurement of moral disengagement in pharmacists.
78  Mouse-Derived Isograft
(2 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
cMDIs (1 time)
MCA (1 time)
MDIs (1 time)
2019 Mouse-Derived Isograft (MDI) In Vivo Tumor Models II. Carcinogen-Induced cMDI Models: Characterization and Cancer Therapeutic Approaches.
79  multi-dimensional integration
(2 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(1 time)
SNR (1 time)
2021 A multi-dimensional integration (MDI) strategy for MR T2 * mapping.
80  multidirectional
(2 times)
Orthopedics
(1 time)
ASES (1 time)
RITC (1 time)
2003 Laser-assisted thermal capsulorrhaphy.
81  multidrug intolerance
(2 times)
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
(1 time)
MDI-HTN (1 time)
2017 Multidrug intolerance in the treatment of hypertension: result from an audit of a specialized hypertension service.
82  multiple daily injection regimen
(2 times)
Endocrinology
(2 times)
AI (1 time)
HI (1 time)
MIDD (1 time)
2007 Maternally inherited diabetes with deafness and obesity: body weight reduction response to treatment with insulin analogues.
83  multiple daily injections of basal-bolus insulin
(2 times)
Drug Therapy
(1 time)
Hb (1 time)
OAD (1 time)
2019 Clinical and Economic Outcomes of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes on Multiple Daily Injections of Basal-bolus Insulin (MDI) Therapy: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
84  multiple daily insulin shots/pump
(2 times)
Endocrinology
(2 times)
EDC (2 times)
eGFR (2 times)
SIF (2 times)
2020 Skin intrinsic fluorescence scores are a predictor of all-cause mortality risk in type 1 diabetes: The Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study.
85  muscle density index
(2 times)
Brain
(1 time)
BI (1 time)
BIA (1 time)
DMD (1 time)
2016 Muscle development in healthy children evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis.
86  myocardial deformation imaging
(2 times)
Heart Diseases
(1 time)
BPD (1 time)
HCM (1 time)
RV (1 time)
2010 The tale of the three sisters.
87  (CFC)-metered-dose inhaler
(1 time)
Pulmonary Medicine
(1 time)
CFC (1 time)
COPD (1 time)
FEV1 (1 time)
2004 Improved delivery of ipratropium bromide/fenoterol from Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler in patients with COPD.
88  100-microg doses from a Ventolin Evohaler when used alone
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
AERO (1 time)
USAL0.5 (1 time)
VOL (1 time)
2008 Salbutamol relative lung and systemic bioavailability of large and small spacers.
89  4,4'diisocyanatol-diphenyl methane
(1 time)
Dermatology
(1 time)
--- 1980 Allergic contact dermatitis from 4,4'diisocyanatol-diphenyl methane (MDI) in a molder.
90  4-methylene-bis-diisocyanate
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
ATR-FTIR (1 time)
BDO (1 time)
DSC (1 time)
2010 Synthesis, extrusion and rheological behaviour of PU/HA composites for biomedical applications.
91  agro-meteorological disaster indices
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
--- 2019 Quantifying the effect of temporal variability of agro-meteorological disasters on winter oilseed rape yield: a case study in Jiangsu province, southeast China.
92  BSID-mental development index
(1 time)
Gynecology
(1 time)
NBNA (2 times)
BSID (1 time)
IVM (1 time)
2018 [Analysis of the prognosis of isolated ventriculomegaly and outcome of imaging follow-up].
93  Dilysine-Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate
(1 time)
Toxicology
(1 time)
CID (1 time)
2019 Dilysine-Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate (MDI), a Urine Biomarker of MDI Exposure?
94  DTI measures with Bayley-II Mental
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
CC (1 time)
CST (1 time)
DTI (1 time)
2014 White matter tract integrity and developmental outcome in newborn infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia.
95  IgE-mediated contact urticaria from diphenylmethane-4,4-diisocyanate
(1 time)
Dermatology
(1 time)
--- 1999 Occupational IgE-mediated contact urticaria from diphenylmethane-4,4-diisocyanate (MDI).
96  M-CSF/dexamethasone/IL-4
(1 time)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
PBM (1 time)
TAM (1 time)
2019 ADP secreted by dying melanoma cells mediates chemotaxis and chemokine secretion of macrophages via the purinergic receptor P2Y12.
97  macrodiisocyanate
(1 time)
Nanotechnology
(1 time)
DMTA (1 time)
DRS (1 time)
DSC (1 time)
2014 Relaxation processes in hybrid organic-inorganic polymer nanosystems polymerized in situ.
98  macroscopic damage index
(1 time)
Inflammation
(1 time)
AMPK (1 time)
DAI (1 time)
DSS (1 time)
2020 Novel complementary coloprotective effects of metformin and MCC950 by modulating HSP90/NLRP3 interaction and inducing autophagy in rats.
99  made in groups of pregnant streptozotocin-diabetic rats
(1 time)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
MD (1 time)
1983 Diabetes in pregnancy. Skeletal malformations in the offspring of diabetic rats after intermittent withdrawal of insulin in early gestation.
100  Mahler's Dyspnoea Index
(1 time)
Rheumatology
(1 time)
6MWD (1 time)
DLCO (1 time)
FVC (1 time)
2019 Effect of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) on systemic sclerosis-related interstitial lung disease with mildly impaired lung function: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.