A Search Service for Abbreviation / Long Form

■ Search Result - Abbreviation : PAD

Search Conditions:
Search Keyword : PAD
Search Method : Exact match.
Research Area:

Results:  
Hit abbr.: 3 kinds.
(Click one to see its hit entries.)

(Appearance freq, Descending)
Abbreviation: PAD
Appearance Frequency: 7659 time(s)
Long forms: 392

Display Settings:
[Display Entries]
Long Form, 100 entries
    (Appearance freq, Descending)
Long Form, all entries
[Entries Per Page]
 per page
Page Control
Page: of
Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
peripheral arterial disease
(5843 times)
Vascular Diseases
(2327 times)
ABI (1064 times)
CI (497 times)
CAD (385 times)
1977 Prevalence of coronary artery disease and peripheral artery disease in patients with different types of primary hyperlipidemia.
peptidylarginine deiminase
(201 times)
Biochemistry
(31 times)
RA (62 times)
ACPA (15 times)
MBP (12 times)
1992 The rat peptidylarginine deiminase-encoding gene: structural analysis and the 5'-flanking sequence.
primary afferent depolarization
(128 times)
Neurology
(52 times)
DRPs (12 times)
PBSt (9 times)
DRP (8 times)
1970 Presynaptic and post-synaptic inhibition elicited in the cat's dorsal column nuclei by mechanical stimulation of skin.
pulsed amperometric detection
(95 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(53 times)
HPAEC (32 times)
HPLC (8 times)
LC (5 times)
1990 Analysis of delta-L-alpha-aminoadipyl-L-cysteinyl-D-valine by ion chromatography and pulsed amperometric detection.
public access defibrillation
(83 times)
Emergency Medicine
(43 times)
OHCA (26 times)
AED (24 times)
AEDs (24 times)
1996 Automated external defibrillators.
physician-assisted death
(72 times)
Health Services
(9 times)
CSD (3 times)
PAS (3 times)
VSED (3 times)
1993 Oncology nurses' attitudes regarding voluntary, physician-assisted dying for competent, terminally ill patients.
preoperative autologous donation
(69 times)
Hematology
(28 times)
ANH (15 times)
EPO (7 times)
Hb (7 times)
1991 The safety of preoperative autologous blood donation in the nonhospital setting.
paper-based analytical device
(66 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(35 times)
LOD (8 times)
POCT (5 times)
BPB (2 times)
2014 A novel paper-based assay for the simultaneous determination of Rh typing and forward and reverse ABO blood groups.
peripheral arterial occlusive disease
(64 times)
Vascular Diseases
(36 times)
ABI (12 times)
IC (5 times)
PTA (5 times)
1996 [Aortitis and development of an aneurysm after PTA of distal aortic stenosis].
10  primary antibody deficiency
(64 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(31 times)
CVID (12 times)
Ig (9 times)
XLA (7 times)
1992 A comparison of specific IgG antibody levels to the cell wall mannan of Candida albicans in normal individuals and in patients with primary antibody deficiency.
11  photoactivated disinfection
(56 times)
Dentistry
(19 times)
TBO (8 times)
ICG (5 times)
LED (5 times)
2004 The photo-activated antibacterial action of toluidine blue O in a collagen matrix and in carious dentine.
12  periampullary diverticulum
(45 times)
Gastroenterology
(23 times)
ERCP (25 times)
CBD (14 times)
EST (5 times)
1998 Periampullary diverticula: consequences of failed ERCP.
13  percutaneous abscess drainage
(32 times)
General Surgery
(11 times)
CT (3 times)
CD (2 times)
HJ (1 time)
1985 [Percutaneous drainage of abdominal abscesses. II. Value in comparison with septic surgery].
14  protein arginine deiminase
(31 times)
Biochemistry
(7 times)
RA (10 times)
NETs (4 times)
ACPA (3 times)
1992 Specificity and mode of action of the muscle-type protein-arginine deiminase.
15  pain, agitation, and delirium
(24 times)
Critical Care
(7 times)
ICU (15 times)
RASS (5 times)
SCCM (3 times)
2013 Delirium monitoring in the ICU: strategies for initiating and sustaining screening efforts.
16  pulmonary artery diameter
(19 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(6 times)
CT (6 times)
PH (6 times)
ILD (3 times)
1990 Usefulness of left and right oblique subcostal view in the echo-Doppler investigation of pulmonary arterial blood flow in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The subxiphoid view in the echo-Doppler evaluation of pulmonary blood flow.
17  phenolic acid decarboxylase
(16 times)
Microbiology
(10 times)
4-VG (3 times)
4-VP (2 times)
pCA (2 times)
1994 PAD1 encodes phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase which confers resistance to cinnamic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
18  polymer-assisted deposition
(15 times)
Chemistry
(8 times)
ALD (1 time)
AZO (1 time)
CIE (1 time)
2004 Polymer-assisted deposition of metal-oxide films.
19  primary affective disorders
(14 times)
Psychiatry
(11 times)
SAD (5 times)
AN (2 times)
beta-EP (2 times)
1976 N-methylnicotinamide excretion and affective disorders.
20  photoelectron angular distribution
(13 times)
Chemistry
(5 times)
ATI (1 time)
EAL (1 time)
ICR (1 time)
2001 Photoelectron imaging on time-dependent molecular alignment created by a femtosecond laser pulse.
21  peripheral atherosclerotic disease
(12 times)
Vascular Diseases
(4 times)
AAA (2 times)
ABI (2 times)
MAP (2 times)
1985 Effects of ticlopidine on blood fibrinogen and blood viscosity in peripheral atherosclerotic disease.
22  peripheral vascular disease
(12 times)
Vascular Diseases
(5 times)
CLI (2 times)
CRP (2 times)
eGFR (2 times)
1981 [Rheology, metabolism and oxygen transport in old and young erythrocytes in arterial occlusive disease].
23  phosphatase-activating domain
(12 times)
Neurology
(8 times)
AD (7 times)
FAT (4 times)
PP1 (2 times)
2011 Pathogenic forms of tau inhibit kinesin-dependent axonal transport through a mechanism involving activation of axonal phosphotransferases.
24  photodiode array detector
(12 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(7 times)
HPLC (4 times)
LOD (2 times)
RP-HPLC (2 times)
2005 [HPLC fingerprinting of total glycosides of Swertia franchetiana].
25  post-activation depression
(12 times)
Neurology
(6 times)
MAS (4 times)
SCI (3 times)
ALS (2 times)
2006 Influence of posture and stimulus parameters on post-activation depression of the soleus H-reflex in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury.
26  pulmonary artery diastolic pressure
(11 times)
Critical Care
(3 times)
MAP (5 times)
CO (4 times)
HR (3 times)
1981 Beneficial hemodynamic response to chronic prazosin therapy in congestive heart failure.
27  phase-attenuation duality
(10 times)
Biophysics
(6 times)
CNR (4 times)
PPCT (3 times)
CD (2 times)
2013 Phase retrieval for hard X-ray computed tomography of samples with hybrid compositions.
28  pial artery dilation
(10 times)
Physiology
(4 times)
FPI (6 times)
CBF (3 times)
MAPK (3 times)
1999 Role of endothelin-1 in age-dependent cerebrovascular hypotensive responses after brain injury.
29  presentation attack detection
(9 times)
Biosensing Techniques
(5 times)
SVM (3 times)
CNN (2 times)
NIR (2 times)
2015 Presentation attack detection for face recognition using light field camera.
30  periodate-oxidized adenosine
(8 times)
Pharmacology
(5 times)
DMA (1 time)
HPLC-HG-AFS (1 time)
Met (1 time)
1984 The effect of methyltransferase inhibition on the metabolism of [74As]arsenite in mice and rabbits.
31  placental adhesion disorder
(8 times)
Radiology
(7 times)
MRI (3 times)
APB (1 time)
AUC (1 time)
2014 MRI of placental adhesive disorder.
32  pulsatile assist device
(8 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(4 times)
ACtP (1 time)
CBF (1 time)
CPB (1 time)
1976 Counterpulsation with a new pulsatile assist device (PAD) in open-heart surgery.
33  paper analytical device
(7 times)
Biotechnology
(2 times)
AChE (1 time)
AIE (1 time)
DPAD (1 time)
2013 Paper-based SlipPAD for high-throughput chemical sensing.
34  percentage of area difference
(7 times)
Medical Informatics
(3 times)
HD (5 times)
IVUS (4 times)
MA (4 times)
2008 ECG denoising and compression using a modified extended Kalman filter structure.
35  perianal disease
(7 times)
Gastroenterology
(3 times)
UC (4 times)
CD (2 times)
CI (1 time)
1999 Relationship between smoking and colonic involvement in inflammatory bowel disease.
36  psychiatric advance directive
(7 times)
Psychiatry
(4 times)
ACT (1 time)
CAT-PAD (1 time)
SCZ (1 time)
2004 Assessing competence to complete psychiatric advance directives with the competence assessment tool for psychiatric advance directives.
37  patent arterial duct
(6 times)
Cardiology
(2 times)
AD (1 time)
ASD (1 time)
Gr (1 time)
1975 [Certain difficulties of diagnosis and treatment of patent ductus arteriosus].
38  photodiode array detection
(6 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(2 times)
AVP (1 time)
DB (1 time)
ESI (1 time)
1991 Isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode-array detection method for determination of lysine- and arginine-vasopressins and oxytocin in biological samples.
39  physical activity diary
(6 times)
Sports Medicine
(2 times)
PA (2 times)
PW (2 times)
BCI (1 time)
2003 Nifty after fifty: evaluation of a physical activity directory for older people.
40  Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance
(6 times)
Psychology
(3 times)
IAPS (1 time)
MSS (1 time)
WSS (1 time)
1998 Correlations of the PAD Emotion Scales with self-reported satisfaction in marriage and work.
41  predominantly antibody deficiency
(6 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(3 times)
CVID (3 times)
AM15 (1 time)
Bmem (1 time)
2014 IgG anti-IgA antibodies in paediatric antibody-deficient patients receiving intravenous immunoglobulin.
42  product of angle distance
(6 times)
Eye Diseases
(2 times)
SOAM (6 times)
ICM (4 times)
RL (4 times)
2012 Computer assisted evaluation of retinal vessels tortuosity in Fabry disease.
43  Pulmonary artery dissection
(6 times)
Cardiology
(3 times)
CHD (1 time)
COPD (1 time)
CT-DSA (1 time)
2009 Pulmonary artery dissection mimicking mediastinal mass.
44  pyrrhotite autotrophic denitrification
(6 times)
Environmental Health
(6 times)
TN (2 times)
BAF (1 time)
CPAD (1 time)
2019 Nutrient removal through pyrrhotite autotrophic denitrification: Implications for eutrophication control.
45  panic disorder
(5 times)
Psychiatry
(2 times)
GAD (2 times)
SAD (2 times)
ADIS-C (1 time)
2008 Screening capacity of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) for DSM-IV anxiety disorders.
46  Peace-Athabasca Delta
(5 times)
Environmental Health
(4 times)
PACs (2 times)
AOSR (1 time)
PAHs (1 time)
2015 Source Apportionment of Background PAHs in the Peace-Athabasca Delta (Alberta, Canada) Using Molecular Level Radiocarbon Analysis.
47  percentage of aggregate destruction rate
(5 times)
Environmental Health
(4 times)
GMD (3 times)
MWD (3 times)
SOC (2 times)
2019 [Effects of tillage types on soil aggregate distribution and stability in irrigated sierozem of Gansu Yellow River irrigation area, China].
48  photo-assisted deposition
(5 times)
Chemistry
(3 times)
EA (1 time)
Img (1 time)
IMP (1 time)
2009 Synthesis of highly dispersed platinum nanoparticles on Ti-containing mesoporous silica using photo-assisted deposition.
49  pial arteriolar diameters
(5 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
ICP (3 times)
ABP (2 times)
HMF (2 times)
1995 [Experimental study on hypertensive crises in epileptic seizures--changes in pial artery diameter, intracranial pressure and regional cerebral blood flow].
50  predicted age difference
(5 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
CNN (1 time)
GM (1 time)
GWAS (1 time)
2015 Prediction of brain age suggests accelerated atrophy after traumatic brain injury.
51  pulmonary artery distensibility
(5 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
ECG (3 times)
APE (2 times)
CTPA (2 times)
2014 Electrocardiogram-gated 320-slice multidetector computed tomography for the measurement of pulmonary arterial distensibility in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.
52  PAD group
(4 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
ABI (1 time)
c.SR (1 time)
c.Str (1 time)
2011 Whole-blood platelet aggregation by Porphyromonas gingivalis in patients with peripheral arterial disease.
53  partial azygos disconnection
(4 times)
Gastroenterology
(2 times)
CAD (1 time)
DSCS (1 time)
DSRS (1 time)
1984 Mortality and rebleeding after hypertensive variceal disconnections.
54  pathological-anatomical diagnosis
(4 times)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
--- 1991 [Stricter rules for referral to PAD (pathologico-anatomical diagnosis) do not guarantee economic savings].
55  penetrating artery disease
(4 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
LAA (2 times)
APA (1 time)
BA (1 time)
2009 Predictive factors for progressive motor deficits in penetrating artery infarctions in two different arterial territories.
56  people with a Disability
(4 times)
Rehabilitation
(2 times)
ASE (1 time)
FAC (1 time)
ICF (1 time)
2004 Physical activity for people with a disability: a conceptual model.
57  Perception and Attention Deficit
(4 times)
Psychology
(2 times)
VH (2 times)
AH (1 time)
CPT-HQ (1 time)
2005 Why people see things that are not there: a novel Perception and Attention Deficit model for recurrent complex visual hallucinations.
58  percutaneous access device
(4 times)
Transplantation
(3 times)
KCV (2 times)
IABP (1 time)
LVAD (1 time)
1988 Percutaneous access devices in calves receiving an artificial heart.
59  periodic alternating drift
(4 times)
Otolaryngology
(2 times)
VOR (2 times)
2001 Eye instability induced by vestibular stimulation in rabbits.
60  peripheral arterial disease of lower limbs
(4 times)
Vascular Diseases
(2 times)
ABI (1 time)
HS (1 time)
1988 Cigarette smoking and the outcome after lower limb arterial surgery.
61  persistently active disease
(4 times)
Rheumatology
(2 times)
SLE (3 times)
IFNCK (1 time)
SACQ (1 time)
2009 Frequency and determinants of flare and persistently active disease in systemic lupus erythematosus.
62  phase angle difference
(4 times)
Behavioral Sciences
(2 times)
AA (1 time)
DLMO (1 time)
DMSO (1 time)
1992 Restricted feeding: a nonphotic zeitgeber in the rabbit.
63  phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase
(4 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
SMO (1 time)
SOI (1 time)
1997 2-phenylethylamine catabolism by Escherichia coli K-12: gene organization and expression.
64  physical activity duration
(4 times)
Respiratory Tract Diseases
(1 time)
BIA (1 time)
CI (1 time)
PAQ (1 time)
2015 Physical capacity in performing daily activities is reduced in scleroderma patients with early lung involvement.
65  polymerase-associated domain
(4 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
TLS (2 times)
hPolkappa (1 time)
PCNA (1 time)
2004 Crystal structure of the catalytic core of human DNA polymerase kappa.
66  presenile Alzheimer-type dementia
(4 times)
Neurology
(4 times)
PICD (4 times)
RT (3 times)
CNV (2 times)
1987 Contingent negative variation and reaction time in patients with presenile idiopathic cognitive decline and presenile Alzheimer-type dementia. Preliminary report on long-term nicergoline treatment.
67  paper-based device
(3 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(2 times)
LOD (2 times)
AMI (1 time)
CK-MB (1 time)
2018 Sensitive paper-based analytical device for fast colorimetric detection of nitrite with smartphone.
68  peptidyl arginine deiminase enzymes
(3 times)
Chemistry
(1 time)
ACPAs (1 time)
BB-CLA (1 time)
DDIT3 (1 time)
2013 Lessons to be learned from periodontitis.
69  periampullary duodenal diverticulum
(3 times)
Therapeutics
(1 time)
ERCP (2 times)
CBD (1 time)
CT (1 time)
2014 Efficacy and safety of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) performed in patients with Periampullary duodenal diverticula (PAD).
70  peripheral occlusive artery disease
(3 times)
Bioengineering
(1 time)
ABI (1 time)
GFP (1 time)
HUVECs (1 time)
2017 Biodegradable Carriers for Delivery of VEGF Plasmid DNA for the Treatment of Critical Limb Ischemia.
71  photo-activated decontamination
(3 times)
Radiology
(1 time)
--- 2009 Evaluation of dental pulp temperature rise during photo-activated decontamination (PAD) of caries: an in vitro study.
72  photoactivated depot
(3 times)
Pharmacology
(2 times)
--- 2019 Hydrophobic Tags for Highly Efficient Light-Activated Protein Release.
73  physical activity decline
(3 times)
Neurology
(1 time)
ICC (1 time)
PARS (1 time)
PCS (1 time)
2008 Reliability and validity of the PAD questionnaire: a measure to assess pain-related decline in physical activity.
74  Physical Agents Directive
(3 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(2 times)
BAMRR (1 time)
CE-MRA (1 time)
CT (1 time)
2007 British Association of MR Radiographers (BAMRR) safety survey 2005: potential impact of European Union (EU) Physical Agents Directive (PAD) on electromagnetic fields (EMF).
75  pixel array detector
(3 times)
Radiology
(2 times)
ASIC (1 time)
CCD (1 time)
PMT (1 time)
2009 A high-speed area detector for novel imaging techniques in a scanning transmission electron microscope.
76  pleasure, arousal, and dominance
(3 times)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
AdSAM (1 time)
BSI (1 time)
fMRI (1 time)
2008 Mapping a multidimensional emotion in response to television commercials.
77  polyaldehyde dextran
(3 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
beta-CD (1 time)
CMCTS (1 time)
CPT (1 time)
2010 A one-pot strategy for biomimetic synthesis and self-assembly of gold nanoparticles.
78  portable accelerometer-based navigation device
(3 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
TKA (3 times)
CON (2 times)
BMI (1 time)
2019 Efficacy of Portable Accelerometer-Based Navigation Devices versus Conventional Guides in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Meta-analysis.
79  posterior arch deficiency
(3 times)
Dentistry
(2 times)
BCLP (1 time)
CL (1 time)
CP (1 time)
1986 Cervical vertebral anomalies in cleft lip and palate.
80  postoperative aqueous depth
(3 times)
Science
(1 time)
C-IOL (1 time)
CBI (1 time)
IOL (1 time)
2015 The Repeatability Assessment of Three-Dimensional Capsule-Intraocular Lens Complex Measurements by Means of High-Speed Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography.
81  potential ascospore dose
(3 times)
Botany
(2 times)
AAC (1 time)
2000 Pear Scab: Components of Potential Ascospore Dose and Validation of an Ascospore Maturity Model.
82  preadipocytes
(3 times)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
AT (1 time)
HFD (1 time)
im (1 time)
2015 [ADVANCES IN PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ADIPOGENESIS THERAPY].
83  preclinical Alzheimer's disease
(3 times)
Neurology
(1 time)
AD (2 times)
CSF (1 time)
EC (1 time)
2016 Plasma miR-34a-5p and miR-545-3p as Early Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease: Potential and Limitations.
84  preexisting autoimmune disease
(3 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
irAEs (3 times)
ICIs (2 times)
CI (1 time)
2020 Immune checkpoint inhibitors therapies in patients with cancer and preexisting autoimmune diseases: A meta-analysis of observational studies.
85  presentation-assimilation-discussion
(3 times)
Education
(2 times)
--- 2019 Genomics course design and combined teaching strategy to enhance learning initiatives in classroom.
86  proportion of aggregate destruction
(3 times)
Environmental Health
(3 times)
CT/NT (1 time)
CT/ST (1 time)
GMD (1 time)
2015 [Effects of biochar on water thermal properties and aggregate stability of Lou soil].
87  psychotic affective disorders
(3 times)
Psychiatry
(3 times)
SSPD (2 times)
AD (1 time)
GH (1 time)
1980 [Different effects of tricyclic (clomipramine and amitriptyline) and tetracyclic (maprotiline) antidepressors on the release of thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin and growth hormone to thyrostimulating releasing hormone in patients with psychoaffective disorders (author's transl)].
88  pulmonary artery diastolic
(3 times)
Anesthesiology
(1 time)
aPAD (1 time)
ARDS (1 time)
CVP (1 time)
1996 Measurement of pulmonary artery diastolic pressure from a right ventricular pressure transducer in patients with heart failure.
89  PA diameter
(2 times)
Blood Circulation
(1 time)
PA (2 times)
CAD (1 time)
CCTA (1 time)
2010 Progressive dilatation of the main pulmonary artery is a characteristic of pulmonary arterial hypertension and is not related to changes in pressure.
90  Pain and Distress
(2 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
MIDAS (2 times)
AEs (1 time)
CM (1 time)
2014 Safety and efficacy of peripheral nerve stimulation of the occipital nerves for the management of chronic migraine: long-term results from a randomized, multicenter, double-blinded, controlled study.
91  pain, agitation/sedation, and delirium
(2 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(1 time)
CI (1 time)
GRADE (1 time)
QI (1 time)
2013 Implementing the 2013 PAD guidelines: top ten points to consider.
92  pain, anxiety, and delirium
(2 times)
Critical Care
(2 times)
ICU (2 times)
ACCM (1 time)
AWS (1 time)
2012 Alcohol withdrawal and delirium tremens in the critically ill: a systematic review and commentary.
93  pain, anxiety, and depressive
(2 times)
Psychiatry
(1 time)
SRMs (1 time)
2021 Composite measures of pain, anxiety, and depressive (PAD) symptoms: Construct and predictive validity.
94  pain-anxiety-depression
(2 times)
Therapeutics
(1 time)
ASM (2 times)
CSM (2 times)
CAMMPS (1 time)
2017 Comprehensive vs. Assisted Management of Mood and Pain Symptoms (CAMMPS) trial: Study design and sample characteristics.
95  palatal arch depth
(2 times)
Orthodontics
(1 time)
CBCT (2 times)
DSCA (2 times)
DSL (2 times)
2016 The Effects of Septal Deviation, Concha Bullosa, and Their Combination on the Depth of Posterior Palatal Arch in Cone-Beam Computed Tomography.
96  Papular acantholytic dyskeratosis
(2 times)
Dermatology
(2 times)
HHD (1 time)
2016 Papular acantholytic dyskeratosis of the vulva associated with familial Hailey-Hailey disease.
97  partially automated driving
(2 times)
Science
(1 time)
CAD (1 time)
2018 The effect of varying levels of vehicle automation on drivers' lane changing behaviour.
98  patch-based anisotropic diffusion regularisation
(2 times)
Biophysics
(2 times)
AD (2 times)
FDOT (2 times)
NLM (1 time)
2016 Patch-based anisotropic diffusion scheme for fluorescence diffuse optical tomography--part 1: technical principles.
99  patients were treated with bortezomib/adriamycin/dexamethasone
(2 times)
Hematology
(2 times)
CR (1 time)
FVII (1 time)
MM (1 time)
2013 [Efficacy and safety study of subcutaneous injection of bortezomib in the treatment of de novo patients with multiple myeloma].
100  patients with alcohol dependence
(2 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(2 times)
fMRI (2 times)
AIC (1 time)
CIC (1 time)
2009 Altered impulse control in alcohol dependence: neural measures of stop signal performance.