A Search Service for Abbreviation / Long Form

■ Search Result - Abbreviation : PAL

Search Conditions:
Search Keyword : PAL
Search Method : Exact match.
Research Area:

Results:  
Hit abbr.: 4 kinds.
(Click one to see its hit entries.)

(Appearance freq, Descending)
Abbreviation: PAL
Appearance Frequency: 3703 time(s)
Long forms: 354

Display Settings:
[Display Entries]
Long Form, 100 entries
    (Appearance freq, Descending)
Long Form, all entries
[Entries Per Page]
 per page
Page Control
Page: of
Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
phenylalanine ammonia-lyase
(1407 times)
Botany
(373 times)
POD (203 times)
PPO (203 times)
SA (124 times)
1968 l-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Activity During Germination of Phaseolus vulgaris.
physical activity level
(448 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(121 times)
TEE (105 times)
BMI (49 times)
DLW (49 times)
1992 A simplified approach of assessing adult chronic energy deficiency.
Paired Associates Learning
(161 times)
Neurology
(46 times)
CANTAB (31 times)
AD (18 times)
SWM (15 times)
1988 Paired associate learning: form 1 and form 2 of the Wechsler Memory Scale.
peer-assisted learning
(157 times)
Education
(69 times)
OSCE (11 times)
EAL (5 times)
NPT (4 times)
1992 Preventing cigarette smoking among children: results of a four-year evaluation of the PAL program.
probing attachment level
(123 times)
Dentistry
(107 times)
PPD (73 times)
PD (29 times)
BOP (27 times)
1983 Effect of inflammation on periodontal attachment levels in miniature swine with mucogingival defects.
prolonged air leak
(84 times)
General Surgery
(46 times)
VATS (14 times)
OR (9 times)
CI (7 times)
1998 Prolonged air leak following radical upper lobectomy: an analysis of incidence and possible risk factors.
pyothorax-associated lymphoma
(71 times)
Neoplasms
(26 times)
EBV (33 times)
CP (4 times)
DLBCL (3 times)
1993 High expression of the Epstein-Barr virus latent protein EB nuclear antigen-2 on pyothorax-associated lymphomas.
peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein
(69 times)
Biochemistry
(13 times)
ELISA (4 times)
LPS (4 times)
MLP (4 times)
1981 A novel peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (PAL) found in the outer membrane of Proteus mirabilis and other Gram-negative bacteria.
passive avoidance learning
(67 times)
Behavioral Sciences
(20 times)
AD (12 times)
i.c.v (10 times)
STZ (9 times)
1992 CRF increases protein phosphorylation and enhances retention performance in rats.
10  Primary adrenal lymphoma
(59 times)
Endocrinology
(12 times)
NHL (8 times)
DLBCL (7 times)
AI (5 times)
1998 Clinically silent primary adrenal lymphoma: a case report and review of the literature.
11  persistent air leak
(48 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(19 times)
BPF (6 times)
EBV (5 times)
ABP (3 times)
1995 Time course of resolution of persistent air leak in spontaneous pneumothorax.
12  photoaffinity labeling
(47 times)
Chemistry
(16 times)
MS (3 times)
CaM (2 times)
ER (2 times)
1986 Characterization of benzodiazepine binding sites after short-wave photo-affinity labeling with flunitrazepam.
13  precautionary allergen labelling
(41 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(15 times)
ED (3 times)
VITAL (3 times)
iFAAM (2 times)
2014 Dietary management of peanut and tree nut allergy: what exactly should patients avoid?
14  periodontal attachment loss
(33 times)
Dentistry
(28 times)
PD (9 times)
PI (6 times)
PPD (6 times)
1989 Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease in an Irish population.
15  palmatine
(31 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(7 times)
BER (8 times)
COP (8 times)
JAT (8 times)
2008 [Absorption of extractive Rhizoma Coptidis in rat everted gut scas].
16  progressive addition lens
(27 times)
Optometry
(16 times)
SVL (3 times)
GRIN (2 times)
BAT (1 time)
1989 Analysis of a progressive addition lens population.
17  palmitate
(23 times)
Biochemistry
(9 times)
HFD (4 times)
EPA (3 times)
IL (3 times)
1988 Biochemical characteristics of mammalian diaphragms.
18  palmitic acid
(22 times)
Biochemistry
(5 times)
AA (5 times)
EPA (4 times)
DHA (3 times)
1991 Phorbol ester plus calcium ionophore induces release of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids of a human B cell line.
19  peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase
(22 times)
Biochemistry
(9 times)
PHM (19 times)
PAM (16 times)
PALcc (2 times)
1991 The membrane-bound bifunctional peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase protein. Exploration of its domain structure through limited proteolysis.
20  para-aortic lymphadenectomy
(20 times)
Neoplasms
(8 times)
LACC (4 times)
CRT (2 times)
LOS (2 times)
1999 Immunohistochemical detection of occult metastases in paraaortic lymph nodes in advanced gastric cancer.
21  palbociclib
(19 times)
Neoplasms
(10 times)
DOX (5 times)
FUL (5 times)
PDOX (4 times)
2017 Cost-effectiveness of palbociclib in hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer.
22  primary aldosteronism
(18 times)
Endocrinology
(8 times)
ARR (3 times)
FH-I (3 times)
FH-II (3 times)
1979 Adrenal imaging with iodomethyl-norcholesterol (I-131) in primary aldosteronism.
23  paliperidone
(17 times)
Pharmacology
(7 times)
RIS (4 times)
AMI (3 times)
ARI (3 times)
2013 Study of the efficacy and safety of switching from risperidone to paliperidone in elderly patients with schizophrenia.
24  palonosetron
(17 times)
Neoplasms
(9 times)
CINV (8 times)
CR (8 times)
DEX (8 times)
2010 Efficacy of palonosetron (PAL) compared to other serotonin inhibitors (5-HT3R) in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients receiving moderately or highly emetogenic (MoHE) treatment: systematic review and meta-analysis.
25  protocatechuic aldehyde
(17 times)
Pharmacology
(9 times)
DSS (6 times)
Sal B (4 times)
CL (2 times)
1992 Effect of benzylidene derivative (novel antirheumatic agent) on chondrocyte metabolism.
26  panoramic annular lens
(16 times)
Ophthalmology
(16 times)
FOV (7 times)
BSPFU (1 time)
GNSS (1 time)
2007 Design of a panoramic annular lens with a long focal length.
27  present atmospheric level
(16 times)
Biology
(8 times)
GOE (1 time)
LMCA (1 time)
Ma (1 time)
1980 Ozone, ultraviolet flux and temperature of the paleoatmosphere.
28  physically active learning
(15 times)
Sports Medicine
(3 times)
DWBH (3 times)
PA (3 times)
CMB (2 times)
2017 Study design and protocol for a mixed methods evaluation of an intervention to reduce and break up sitting time in primary school classrooms in the UK: The CLASS PAL (Physically Active Learning) Programme.
29  power-assisted liposuction
(15 times)
General Surgery
(11 times)
LAL (3 times)
SAL (3 times)
ASCs (2 times)
2007 Liposuction: review of the techniques, innovations and applications.
30  PA level
(14 times)
Delivery of Health Care
(3 times)
PA (14 times)
BMI (2 times)
AD (1 time)
2008 Validity of physical activity intensity predictions by ActiGraph, Actical, and RT3 accelerometers.
31  positron annihilation lifetime
(14 times)
Chemistry
(4 times)
o-Ps (2 times)
PADB (2 times)
SEM (2 times)
2006 Radiation effect on positronium formation in solid state nuclear track detector.
32  pedicle axis length
(12 times)
Neurosurgery
(3 times)
PH (7 times)
PW (7 times)
CT (6 times)
2011 Anatomical feasibility of pediatric cervical pedicle screw insertion by computed tomographic morphometric evaluation of 376 pediatric cervical pedicles.
33  Practical Approach to Lung Health
(12 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(3 times)
CRD (3 times)
COPD (2 times)
GARD (2 times)
2005 Implementing global knowledge in local practice: a WHO lung health initiative in Nepal.
34  phosphatase alkaline
(11 times)
Biochemistry
(3 times)
GGT (6 times)
GPx (6 times)
LDH (6 times)
1981 [Determination of serum activity of glucose phosphate isomerase and glutathione reductase in intra and extra hepatic cholestasis.(author's transl)].
35  parametric array loudspeaker
(10 times)
Audiology
(9 times)
VCL (1 time)
2010 Active noise control using a steerable parametric array loudspeaker.
36  phenylalanine lyase
(9 times)
Botany
(3 times)
CHS (2 times)
FRAP (2 times)
SA (2 times)
2008 cGMP in ozone and NO dependent responses.
37  plantar annular ligament
(9 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(9 times)
DFTS (5 times)
DDFT (3 times)
MF (2 times)
1999 Tenoscopic examination and proximal annular ligament desmotomy for treatment of equine "complex" digital sheath tenosynovitis.
38  paracorporeal artificial lung
(8 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
ARDS (2 times)
DLC (2 times)
MAP (2 times)
2002 The paracorporeal artificial lung improves 5-day outcomes from lethal smoke/burn-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome in sheep.
39  persistent airflow limitation
(8 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(5 times)
AL (1 time)
aOR (1 time)
COPD (1 time)
1984 Persisting airflow limitation in asthmatics receiving routine self-adjusted medication.
40  Pharmaceutical Affairs Law
(7 times)
Pharmacy
(3 times)
drugs, etc (1 time)
GPMSP (1 time)
GPSP (1 time)
2002 Oncology drug clinical development and approval in Japan: the role of the pharmaceuticals and medical devices evaluation center (PMDEC).
41  Photoacoustic lymphangiography
(7 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
DBF (2 times)
ICG (2 times)
LVA (2 times)
2021 Photoacoustic lymphangiography before and after lymphaticovenular anastomosis.
42  plasma aldosterone levels
(7 times)
Endocrinology
(4 times)
PRA (4 times)
5-HTP (1 time)
CAP-NS (1 time)
1976 [Secretory regulation and episodic secretion of aldosterone in patients with primary aldosteronism (author's transl)].
43  plasma-activated liquid
(7 times)
Chemistry
(4 times)
PABS (2 times)
PAW (2 times)
RONS (2 times)
2018 Degradation of norfloxacin in aqueous solution by atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma: Mechanism and degradation pathways.
44  Pohang Accelerator Laboratory
(7 times)
Biophysics
(2 times)
BPMs (1 time)
BS (1 time)
DENN (1 time)
2004 Measurement of the neutron fluence and dose spectra using an extended bonner sphere and a tissue-equivalent proportional counter.
45  phenylalanine
(6 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
POD (3 times)
PPO (3 times)
CAT (2 times)
1988 Intestinal transport of thiamin and thiamin monophosphate in rat everted jejunal sacs: a comparative study using some potential inhibitors.
46  Pool Activity Level
(6 times)
Geriatrics
(3 times)
--- 2002 The Pool Activity Level (PAL) Instrument for Occupational Profiling Jackie Pool The Pool Activity Level (PAL) Instrument for Occupational Profiling Second edition Jessica Kingsley Publishers 96pp 22.50 1843100800 1843100800.
47  palmitic
(5 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
MYR (3 times)
STE (2 times)
ara (1 time)
2004 Lipid binding in rice nonspecific lipid transfer protein-1 complexes from Oryza sativa.
48  people affected by leprosy
(5 times)
Tropical Medicine
(3 times)
HC (1 time)
MB (1 time)
PB (1 time)
2007 Recent advances in ocular leprosy.
49  peptidylamidoglycolate lyase
(5 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
PHM (5 times)
NE (2 times)
PAM (2 times)
1996 Peptide amidating activity in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.
50  Physical Activity and Lymphedema
(5 times)
Neoplasms
(4 times)
BCRL (1 time)
BIRS (1 time)
QoL (1 time)
2009 Physical Activity and Lymphedema (the PAL trial): assessing the safety of progressive strength training in breast cancer survivors.
51  PAL group
(4 times)
Thoracic Diseases
(2 times)
IFN-gamma (1 time)
OR (1 time)
Pal (1 time)
2016 Impact of primary para-aortic lymphadenectomy on distant failure in locally advanced cervical cancer patients treated in the era of image-guided adaptive brachytherapy.
52  penicillin allergy label
(4 times)
Pharmacy
(2 times)
aOR (1 time)
CAL (1 time)
CI (1 time)
2020 Testing Strategies and Predictors for Evaluating Immediate and Delayed Reactions to Cephalosporins.
53  periodate oxidation and aniline-catalyzed oxime ligation
(4 times)
Biochemistry
(4 times)
GAL (3 times)
IDs (1 time)
NBDAO (1 time)
2012 Detection of cellular sialic acid content using nitrobenzoxadiazole carbonyl-reactive chromophores.
54  plasma ammonia levels
(4 times)
Radiology
(1 time)
AHE (1 time)
AL (1 time)
ALF (1 time)
1992 Plasma ammonia in patients with acute leukemia.
55  posterior-assisted levitation
(4 times)
Ophthalmology
(3 times)
IOLs (1 time)
PC IOLs (1 time)
TPPV (1 time)
2005 Posterior assisted levitation: long-term follow-up data.
56  power-assisted lipoplasty
(4 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
SAL (2 times)
TL (1 time)
WAL (1 time)
2000 Power-assisted lipoplasty (PAL): A clinical pilot study comparing PAL to traditional lipoplasty (TL).
57  prealbumin
(4 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(2 times)
RBP (2 times)
RDR (2 times)
AAT (1 time)
1990 [Changes in 4 bearer-proteins and C3 in patients following burn injury].
58  pregnant after loss
(4 times)
Nursing
(2 times)
pregnancy anxiety (1 time)
2007 Threat appraisal, coping, and emotions across pregnancy subsequent to perinatal loss.
59  Primary adrenal leiomyosarcoma
(4 times)
Pathology
(1 time)
SMA (2 times)
EUS-CB (1 time)
EUS-FNA (1 time)
2015 Primary adrenal leiomyosarcoma: a case report and review of literature.
60  proximal airway lavage
(4 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(3 times)
BAL (3 times)
GM-CSF (2 times)
IL-8 (2 times)
1996 Ozone-induced decrements in FEV1 and FVC do not correlate with measures of inflammation.
61  pulmonary air leak
(4 times)
Critical Care
(1 time)
ARDS (1 time)
BPD (1 time)
BW (1 time)
1990 [Incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia].
62  palm oil
(3 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
COC (1 time)
CON (1 time)
Ex (1 time)
2014 Sensorial and fatty acid profile of ice cream manufactured with milk of crossbred cows fed palm oil and coconut fat.
63  Palyam
(3 times)
Biology
(2 times)
AGDP (1 time)
BLU (1 time)
BTV (1 time)
1985 Problems in the interpretation of diagnostic tests due to cross-reactions between orbiviruses and broad serological responses in animals.
64  para-aortic lymph node
(3 times)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
GBC (1 time)
PALM (1 time)
pCR (1 time)
2005 Results and controversial issues regarding a para-aortic lymph node dissection for advanced gastric cancer.
65  particle acceleration levels
(3 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
AEP (3 times)
SPL (2 times)
ARHL (1 time)
2012 Relationship between swim bladder morphology and hearing abilities--a case study on Asian and African cichlids.
66  patient acuity level
(3 times)
Pharmacy Service, Hospital
(2 times)
PAST (2 times)
PICU (1 time)
2007 Association of nursing workload and unplanned extubations in a pediatric intensive care unit.
67  pediatric artificial lung
(3 times)
Transplantation
(3 times)
ESLF (2 times)
RPA (2 times)
rPA-RT (1 time)
2015 The Implantable Pediatric Artificial Lung: Interim Report on the Development of an End-Stage Lung Failure Model.
68  Peer Alternatives in Addiction
(3 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(3 times)
WFS (2 times)
AUD (1 time)
PGA (1 time)
2018 A longitudinal study of the comparative efficacy of Women for Sobriety, LifeRing, SMART Recovery, and 12-step groups for those with AUD.
69  pelvic-and-aortic lymphadenectomy
(3 times)
Gynecology
(3 times)
PL (2 times)
RALH (2 times)
BMI (1 time)
2009 Robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy for endometrial cancer: Analysis of surgical performance.
70  peptidoglycan-associated outer-membrane lipoprotein
(3 times)
Microbiology
(2 times)
CF (1 time)
orf2 (1 time)
1988 Cloning of genes encoding a 15,000-dalton peptidoglycan-associated outer membrane lipoprotein and an antigenically related 15,000-dalton protein from Haemophilus influenzae.
71  periapical lesions
(3 times)
Otolaryngology
(1 time)
CKs (1 time)
EALs (1 time)
EGL (1 time)
2012 Immunohistochemical expression of apoptotic factors, cytokeratins, and metalloproteinase-9 in periapical and epithelialized gingival lesions.
72  phage-associated lysin
(3 times)
Microbiology
(2 times)
LYSIN-M (1 time)
1971 Staphylococcal bacteriophage-associated lysin: a lytic agent active against Staphylococcus aureus.
73  phagocytic activity of leukocytes
(3 times)
Lung Diseases
(2 times)
LCT (1 time)
NSR (1 time)
1985 [Evaluation of the nonspecific resistance of diffuse peritonitis patients by using a lysosomal-cation test and indices of leukocyte phagocytic activity].
74  plasma activated liquids
(3 times)
Science
(1 time)
CAP (1 time)
PtNPs (1 time)
2019 Inactivation of Single Strains of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium Planktonic Cells Biofilms With Plasma Activated Liquids.
75  plasma-activated lactated Ringer's solution
(3 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
PAM (2 times)
EOC (1 time)
Lac-R (1 time)
2017 Effect of Plasma-Activated Lactated Ringer's Solution on Pancreatic Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.
76  plating after lengthening
(3 times)
General Surgery
(1 time)
CM (1 time)
EFI (1 time)
ROM (1 time)
2007 Plating after lengthening (PAL): technical notes and preliminary clinical experiences.
77  pneumatic artificial larynx
(3 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
ES (1 time)
MPT (1 time)
NNE (1 time)
2009 Perceptual evaluation and acoustic analysis of pneumatic artificial larynx.
78  poly(A) tail length
(3 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
m6A (2 times)
APAL-seq (1 time)
DRS (1 time)
2020 Heat Shock Responsive Gene Expression Modulated by mRNA Poly(A) Tail Length.
79  posterior axial length
(3 times)
Orthodontics
(1 time)
APL (1 time)
CBCT (1 time)
CLP (1 time)
1996 Penetrating keratoplasty for keratoconus: role of videokeratoscopy and trephine sizing.
80  postoperative anastomotic leakage
(3 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
CCT (1 time)
CI (1 time)
FTBs (1 time)
2010 Significance of intraoperative endoscopy in total gastrectomy for gastric cancer.
81  Primary appendiceal lymphomas
(3 times)
General Surgery
(1 time)
DLBCL (1 time)
NHL (1 time)
OS (1 time)
2016 Primary appendiceal lymphoma: clinical characteristics and outcomes of 116 patients.
82  Programa de Apoyo Alimentario
(3 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(3 times)
pp (1 time)
2010 Cash and in-kind transfers in poor rural communities in Mexico increase household fruit, vegetable, and micronutrient consumption but also lead to excess energy consumption.
83  pacifier-activated lullaby
(2 times)
Complementary Therapies
(2 times)
NNS (2 times)
LBW (1 time)
2005 Effects of the pacifier activated lullaby on weight gain of premature infants.
84  palatal
(2 times)
Dentistry
(1 time)
DB (1 time)
DGE (1 time)
MB (1 time)
1983 The potential attachment area of the maxillary first molar.
85  palate
(2 times)
Otolaryngology
(1 time)
MM (2 times)
AHI (1 time)
BOT (1 time)
2000 Reliability of the Muller maneuver and its association with sleep-disordered breathing.
86  palatinus
(2 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
EMG (2 times)
LP (2 times)
TP (2 times)
1994 Soft palate muscle activity in response to hypoxic hypercapnia.
87  Palomino
(2 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
ARCO (1 time)
CAL (1 time)
DAR (1 time)
1993 Breed and environmental effects on postweaning growth of rabbits.
88  panaxynol
(2 times)
Drug Therapy
(1 time)
LPS (2 times)
BDNF (1 time)
D-GalN (1 time)
2020 Panaxynol from Saposhnikovia diviaricata exhibits a hepatoprotective effect against lipopolysaccharide + D-Gal N induced acute liver injury by inhibiting Nf-kappaB/IkappaB-alpha and activating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathways.
89  paricalcitol
(2 times)
Chemistry
(1 time)
BACE1 (2 times)
AD (1 time)
BER (1 time)
2019 Paricalcitol accelerates BACE1 lysosomal degradation and inhibits calpain-1 dependent neuronal loss in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.
90  Parkinson's Active Living
(2 times)
Geriatrics
(1 time)
PD (1 time)
SD (1 time)
2017 The Parkinson's Active Living (PAL) Program.
91  partial aortic ligation
(2 times)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
ARF (1 time)
1987 Partial aortic ligation: a hypoperfusion model of ischemic acute renal failure and a comparison with renal artery occlusion.
92  partial ligature of their abdominal aorta
(2 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
PAL-O (2 times)
Sh-O (1 time)
SHAM (1 time)
1996 Increased salt preference in adult offspring raised by mother rats consuming excessive amounts of salt and water.
93  Pathfinder AVHRR Land
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
AVHRR (1 time)
ET (1 time)
grd (1 time)
2002 The potential of Pathfinder AVHRR data for providing surrogate climatic variables across Africa and Europe for epidemiological applications.
94  patient-assisted laparoscopy
(2 times)
Gynecology
(1 time)
--- 1998 Mapping the source and character of pain due to endometriosis by patient-assisted laparoscopy.
95  Peer-Assisted Lifestyle
(2 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
BM (1 time)
BMI (1 time)
EUC (1 time)
2021 Peer-Assisted Lifestyle (PAL) intervention: a protocol of a cluster-randomised controlled trial of a health-coaching intervention delivered by veteran peers to improve obesity treatment in primary care.
96  peptide asparaginyl ligase
(2 times)
Science
(1 time)
AEPs (2 times)
PDIs (1 time)
Vc (1 time)
2019 Structural determinants for peptide-bond formation by asparaginyl ligases.
97  per length squared
(2 times)
Anatomy
(1 time)
CPA (1 time)
LTCA (1 time)
MLA (1 time)
2008 Alternative approach to evaluating lumbar lordosis on direct roentgenograms: projection area per length squared.
98  Personal Acoustics Lab
(2 times)
Medical Informatics
(1 time)
DSP (1 time)
1986 The Personal Acoustics Lab (PAL): a microcomputer-based system for digital signal acquisition, analysis, and synthesis.
99  phenyl alanine lyase activity
(2 times)
Chemistry
(2 times)
CBSM (2 times)
phe (2 times)
TF (1 time)
2011 Effects of nitrogen fertilization on synthesis of primary and secondary metabolites in three varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume).
100  phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from Rhodotorula glutinis
(2 times)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
CHI (1 time)
CHS (1 time)
F6H (1 time)
2015 Construction and development of a novel expression system of Streptomyces.