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Abbreviation: PY
Appearance Frequency: 1945 time(s)
Long forms: 169

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
person-years
(1129 times)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
(162 times)
CI (285 times)
HR (97 times)
HIV (90 times)
1980 Recent changes in the incidence of duodenal and gastric ulcer.
patient-years
(239 times)
Rheumatology
(59 times)
RA (41 times)
CI (28 times)
AEs (26 times)
1970 The use of thiazides in the prevention of renal calculi.
pack-years
(49 times)
Neoplasms
(14 times)
NSCLC (8 times)
CI (7 times)
COPD (5 times)
1994 Detection of early lung impairment with aerosol bolus dispersion.
protein yield
(35 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(17 times)
MY (23 times)
FY (21 times)
QTL (8 times)
2005 An independent confirmation of a quantitative trait locus for milk yield and composition traits on bovine chromosome 26.
Percus-Yevick
(30 times)
Biophysics
(20 times)
HNC (9 times)
MHNC (3 times)
FMT (2 times)
1994 Light scattering for young human and cataractous lenses.
pyronin Y
(26 times)
Cell Biology
(7 times)
AO (5 times)
7-AAD (2 times)
CHO (2 times)
1981 Flow cytometric estimation of DNA and RNA content in intact cells stained with Hoechst 33342 and pyronin Y.
pyloric
(25 times)
Neurology
(20 times)
LP (18 times)
PD (17 times)
VD (12 times)
1982 Mechanisms underlying pattern generation in lobster stomatogastric ganglion as determined by selective inactivation of identified neurons. III. Synaptic connections of electrically coupled pyloric neurons.
per year
(16 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
3DCRT (1 time)
AF (1 time)
AHEI (1 time)
1991 Incidence and outcome of surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia among residents of Rochester, Minnesota: 1980-87. A population-based study.
physical dormancy
(16 times)
Botany
(10 times)
SEM (3 times)
PD (2 times)
DAP (1 time)
2007 Seed development in Ipomoea lacunosa (Convolvulaceae), with particular reference to anatomy of the water gap.
10  pyloric constrictor
(13 times)
Neurology
(12 times)
LP (10 times)
PD (7 times)
DA (6 times)
1994 Multiple receptors mediate the modulatory effects of serotonergic neurons in a small neural network.
11  pyrazole
(13 times)
Biochemistry
(3 times)
CYP2E1 (3 times)
EtOH (3 times)
ADH (2 times)
1987 Different effects of chemicals on metabolism of N-nitrosamines in rat liver.
12  peptide Y
(12 times)
Endocrinology
(3 times)
NPY (9 times)
PYY (6 times)
CCK (4 times)
1992 The primary structure of peptide Y (PY) of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias: immunocytochemical localisation and isolation from the pancreas.
13  PY 108-068
(12 times)
Pharmacology
(9 times)
AII (1 time)
BP (1 time)
Ca (1 time)
1982 PY 108-068, a new, potent, and selective inhibitor of calcium-induced contraction of rabbit aortic rings.
14  pyrimethamine
(12 times)
Genetics, Medical
(3 times)
CH (5 times)
COL (5 times)
EZ (5 times)
1975 Chemosuppressive field trials in Thailand. II. The suppression of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasitemias by a diformyldapsone-pyrimethamine combination.
15  pyruvate
(11 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
LA (5 times)
AI (1 time)
ATP (1 time)
1979 Growth hormone response to continuous and intermittent exercise.
16  Practical Year
(10 times)
Education, Medical
(6 times)
CanMEDS (1 time)
CSL (1 time)
GP (1 time)
2014 [Requirements for final year medical studies in the era of generation Y - implementation for general and visceral surgery at the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich].
17  proline-tyrosine
(10 times)
Biochemistry
(6 times)
NLS (2 times)
AIP (1 time)
BZA (1 time)
1999 Molecular cloning of Nedd4 from Xenopus laevis.
18  pyrethroid
(10 times)
Tropical Medicine
(5 times)
OP (6 times)
kdr (3 times)
OC (2 times)
1994 Insecticide susceptibility in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from French Polynesia.
19  pyridostigmine
(10 times)
Physiology
(5 times)
PH (5 times)
AChE (3 times)
MI (2 times)
1984 Protection against diisopropylfluorophosphate intoxication by pyridostigmine and physostigmine in combination with atropine and mecamylamine.
20  peptone-yeast-extract
(9 times)
Microbiology
(8 times)
DAP (2 times)
SEM (2 times)
CD (1 time)
1975 The recovery of nocardial recombinants from broth cultures.
21  pyrogallol
(9 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(2 times)
GA (4 times)
RE (4 times)
4OMGA (2 times)
1997 Antigenotoxicity of Enzymatic Browning Reaction Products of Potatoes in the Micronucleus Test.
22  PPxY
(7 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
CPMG (1 time)
ENaC (1 time)
HCMV (1 time)
1999 NMR studies of tandem WW domains of Nedd4 in complex with a PY motif-containing region of the epithelial sodium channel.
23  pyramidal tract
(7 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(2 times)
FA (5 times)
DTI (4 times)
CC (2 times)
2010 Relationships of brain white matter microstructure with clinical and MR measures in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
24  peak yield
(6 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(3 times)
WD (2 times)
BN (1 time)
BO (1 time)
2014 Milk yield and composition from Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil.
25  pouch young
(6 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(3 times)
PRL (1 time)
1985 Active anti-paternal immunization does not affect the success of marsupial pregnancy.
26  process yield
(6 times)
Chemistry
(2 times)
EE (3 times)
PS (2 times)
ACNs (1 time)
1992 The effects of preblending time on physical and textural properties of coarse ground sausages.
27  pyrolytic
(6 times)
Environmental Health
(5 times)
LO (5 times)
PAHs (4 times)
HO (3 times)
2014 Chronic dietary exposure to pyrolytic and petrogenic mixtures of PAHs causes physiological disruption in zebrafish--part I: Survival and growth.
28  pyrrolidine
(6 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(2 times)
HE (2 times)
PP (2 times)
PZ (2 times)
1991 Quantitative determination of amines in wine by liquid chromatography.
29  pack-years smoked
(5 times)
Neoplasms
(4 times)
FH (2 times)
HR (2 times)
NSCLC (2 times)
1997 Does smoking or family history influence the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer?
30  payment year
(5 times)
Jurisprudence
(3 times)
ESRD (5 times)
PPS (4 times)
QIP (4 times)
2012 Medicare program; end-stage renal disease prospective payment system, quality incentive program, and bad debt reductions for all Medicare providers. Final rule.
31  person-years at risk
(5 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
SIR (2 times)
CI (1 time)
CVAs (1 time)
2013 Temporal trends in stroke admissions in Denmark 1997-2009.
32  person-years of follow-up
(5 times)
Science
(2 times)
CI (4 times)
HR (2 times)
GOLD (1 time)
2008 COPD stage and risk of hospitalization for infectious disease.
33  pyramidal
(5 times)
Neurosciences
(1 time)
EEG (2 times)
TC (2 times)
BMIs (1 time)
2002 Model of thalamocortical slow-wave sleep oscillations and transitions to activated States.
34  past year
(4 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(3 times)
PPY (3 times)
NESARC (2 times)
ADs (1 time)
2002 Dependence potential of antidepressants compared to benzodiazepines.
35  perylene
(4 times)
Chemistry
(2 times)
AN (1 time)
CD (1 time)
DPA (1 time)
2003 Synthesis of organic one-dimensional nanomaterials by solid-phase reaction.
36  procion yellow
(4 times)
Brain
(2 times)
ME (2 times)
ST (2 times)
ARC (1 time)
1975 Low resistance pathways between myocardial cells.
37  pyraclostrobin
(4 times)
Environmental Health
(3 times)
AZ (3 times)
KM (2 times)
CAT (1 time)
2009 Subnanomolar inhibitor of cytochrome bc1 complex designed by optimizing interaction with conformationally flexible residues.
38  peptone yeast extract medium
(3 times)
Microbiology
(3 times)
CL (1 time)
FCS (1 time)
GLC (1 time)
1988 Characterization of some Clostridium species by gas-liquid chromatography using numerical analysis.
39  physical
(3 times)
Botany
(1 time)
EV (1 time)
MPQ (1 time)
ND (1 time)
2008 Understanding pain and quality of life for patients with chronic venous ulcers.
40  Pro-Pro-x-Tyr
(3 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
CYYR1 (1 time)
ENaC (1 time)
LAPTM4alpha (1 time)
2008 Role of the UPS in Liddle syndrome.
41  product yield
(3 times)
Chemistry
(1 time)
QY (2 times)
CQDs (1 time)
DTZ (1 time)
2011 Colon specific chitosan microspheres for chronotherapy of chronic stable angina.
42  psilocybin
(3 times)
Psychopharmacology
(1 time)
PI (2 times)
4HIAA (1 time)
ACTH (1 time)
1997 Determination of psilocin and 4-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid in plasma by HPLC-ECD and pharmacokinetic profiles of oral and intravenous psilocybin in man.
43  pyrazine-2,5-dipropanoic acid
(3 times)
Pharmacology
(3 times)
ALA (3 times)
PDT (2 times)
DHPY (1 time)
2004 Analysis of pyrazine 2,5-dipropionic acid in 5-aminolevulinic acid-loaded urological and topical delivery vehicles: methodology and assay validation.
44  100-person-years
(2 times)
Public Health
(2 times)
AHR (1 time)
HCV (1 time)
PWID (1 time)
2019 High rates of early HCV reinfection after DAA treatment in people with recent drug use attended at mobile harm reduction units.
45  people-years
(2 times)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
ALL (1 time)
HEN (1 time)
IQR (1 time)
1996 Characterization of acute lymphoblastic leukemia subtypes in Brazilian patients.
46  peptone-yeast
(2 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(2 times)
--- 2003 Expression of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B and their sigma factor TcdD is controlled by temperature.
47  plain yogurt
(2 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(2 times)
FY (2 times)
FFM (1 time)
FM (1 time)
2015 Effects of vitamin D-fortified low fat yogurt on glycemic status, anthropometric indexes, inflammation, and bone turnover in diabetic postmenopausal women: A randomised controlled clinical trial.
48  plain yogurt drink
(2 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
DY (2 times)
CDY (1 time)
DCY (1 time)
2011 Daily consumption of vitamin D- or vitamin D + calcium-fortified yogurt drink improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial.
49  poly-proline
(2 times)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
ER (1 time)
hENaC (1 time)
PR (1 time)
2006 WW domain binding protein-2, an E6-associated protein interacting protein, acts as a coactivator of estrogen and progesterone receptors.
50  Polyoma virus
(2 times)
Science
(1 time)
LT (2 times)
MT (2 times)
ST (2 times)
1987 Tumour prevention and rejection with recombinant vaccinia.
51  Poyang Lake
(2 times)
Genetics
(1 time)
BP (1 time)
DT (1 time)
mtDNA (1 time)
2014 Genetic diversity and population structure of the critically endangered Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) as revealed by mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA.
52  Prana-Yoga
(2 times)
Holistic Health
(1 time)
HRV (1 time)
LF (1 time)
RAVLT (1 time)
2015 Effect of controlled breathing exercises on the psychological status and the cardiac autonomic tone: Sudarshan Kriya and Prana-Yoga.
53  prediction year
(2 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
AUC (1 time)
AUROC (1 time)
BY (1 time)
2014 Establishment of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in free-range chickens: a longitudinal on farm study.
54  probiotic yogurt
(2 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
H. pylori (1 time)
LF (1 time)
2013 Randomized control trial: Comparison of Triple Therapy plus Probiotic Yogurt vs. Standard Triple Therapy on Helicobacter Pylori Eradication.
55  Professional Year
(2 times)
Education
(1 time)
--- 2007 Programmatic assessment of student experiences using a longitudinal survey.
56  protein Y
(2 times)
Microbiological Phenomena
(1 time)
EF-Tu (1 time)
HPF (1 time)
RMF (1 time)
2008 Modification of the Ribosome and the Translational Machinery during Reduced Growth Due to Environmental Stress.
57  Prunus yedoensis
(2 times)
Complementary Therapies
(2 times)
COX-2 (1 time)
ELISA (1 time)
HPLC (1 time)
2013 Anti-inflammatory effect of Prunus yedoensis through inhibition of nuclear factor-κB in macrophages.
58  pyrocarbon
(2 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
Ti (2 times)
ROM (1 time)
SI (1 time)
2006 Osseointegration and mechanical stability of pyrocarbon and titanium hand implants in a load-bearing in vivo model for small joint arthroplasty.
59  pyroelectric
(2 times)
Ophthalmology
(2 times)
PV (2 times)
1996 Influence of the internal photoinduced electric field on the formation of self-pumped phase conjugation in doped (K(0.5)Na(0.5))(0.2)(Sr(0.75)Ba(0.25))(0.9)Nb(2)O(6) crystals.
60  pyroglutamic
(2 times)
Toxicology
(2 times)
GA (2 times)
MSG (2 times)
1983 Plasma pyroglutamic acid levels after oral administration of monosodium glutamate to human volunteers.
61  pyromorphite
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
AMs (1 time)
DTPA (1 time)
HAP (1 time)
2013 Organic acids inhibit the formation of pyromorphite and Zn-phosphate in phosphorous amended Pb- and Zn-contaminated soil.
62  pyronin Y(G)
(2 times)
Cell Biology
(2 times)
7-AAD (2 times)
FITC (2 times)
AD (1 time)
1999 Flow cytometric analysis of live cell proliferation and phenotype in populations with low viability.
63  pyruvic acid
(2 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
BCKD (1 time)
CI (1 time)
DH (1 time)
1993 Comparative metabolism and structure of BCKD-E2 in primary biliary cirrhosis.
64  (4-(1-pyrenyl)butyl)amine hydrochloride
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
DO (1 time)
LB (1 time)
2005 Thin films of hydrophobically modified poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide).
65  100-patient-years
(1 time)
BE (1 time)
CE-IM (1 time)
EET (1 time)
2017 Recurrence of intestinal metaplasia and early neoplasia after endoscopic eradication therapy for Barrett's esophagus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
66  2-Pyrrolidone
(1 time)
Drug Therapy
(1 time)
BPL (1 time)
MPY (1 time)
PG (1 time)
2005 Effect of penetration enhancers on the transdermal delivery of bupranolol through rat skin.
67  3H-pyrene
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
BAF (1 time)
BaP (1 time)
HCBP (1 time)
2004 The role of desorption for describing the bioavailability of select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners for seven laboratory-spiked sediments.
68  bromophenyl-methyl-pyridinium
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
ISC (1 time)
RTP (1 time)
2019 Efficient Room-Temperature Phosphorescence of a Solid-State Supramolecule Enhanced by Cucurbit[6]uril.
69  cathelicidin-PY
(1 time)
Gastroenterology
(1 time)
CCK-8 (1 time)
LAL (1 time)
LPS (1 time)
2020 [Preliminary study of antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin-PY therapy in mice with acute liver failure].
70  high-protein yogurt
(1 time)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
HPLC (1 time)
RY (1 time)
2021 [Nutritional labeling and amino acid profile in high protein Chilean dairy products: a new alternative for health and sports].
71  l-prolyl-l-tyrosine
(1 time)
Biotechnology
(1 time)
CHO (1 time)
GY (1 time)
2020 Comparison of l-tyrosine containing dipeptides reveals maximum ATP availability for l-prolyl-l-tyrosine in CHO cells.
72  Leu-Pro-Xaa-Tyr
(1 time)
Science
(1 time)
Gla (1 time)
PRGP2 (1 time)
YAP (1 time)
2007 Proline-rich Gla protein 2 is a cell-surface vitamin K-dependent protein that binds to the transcriptional coactivator Yes-associated protein.
73  pack-yr
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
CRC (1 time)
2013 Partial associations of dietary iron, smoking and intestinal bacteria with colorectal cancer risk.
74  Packets/Year
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
ANZTS (1 time)
BBD (1 time)
COPD (1 time)
2015 [The diagnosis of COPD is recommendation dependent].
75  Paraguayo
(1 time)
Ecological and Environmental Phenomena
(1 time)
IA (1 time)
2020 Phenotypic plasticity of two M. oleifera ecotypes from different climatic zones under water stress and re-watering.
76  Paramonov-Yaliraki
(1 time)
Biophysics
(1 time)
CG (1 time)
PAH (1 time)
2019 Coarse-grained modeling of the nucleation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into soot precursors.
77  parent-youth
(1 time)
Science
(1 time)
FPNG (1 time)
GEE (1 time)
kiR (1 time)
2018 The Role of Culture of Origin on the Effectiveness of a Parents-Involved Intervention to Prevent Substance Use Among Latino Middle School Youth: Results of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.
78  parents and youth
(1 time)
FPNG (1 time)
2013 Efficacy of a Culturally Based Parenting Intervention: Strengthening Open Communication Between Mexican-Heritage Parents and Adolescent Children.
79  participant-year
(1 time)
Hypersensitivity
(1 time)
AE (1 time)
DBPCFC (1 time)
2020 Continuous and Daily Oral Immunotherapy for Peanut Allergy: Results from a 2-Year Open-Label Follow-On Study.
80  patient years of follow-up
(1 time)
Cardiovascular Diseases
(1 time)
UEDVT (1 time)
2021 Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis and Asymptomatic Vein Occlusion in Patients With Transvenous Leads: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
81  paynantheine
(1 time)
Toxicology
(1 time)
MG (1 time)
MG-OH (1 time)
SC (1 time)
2020 Temperature and pH-Dependent Stability of Mitragyna Alkaloids.
82  peak daily milk yield
(1 time)
Animal Husbandry
(1 time)
DMY (1 time)
FC (1 time)
LL (1 time)
2019 Determination of a possible relationship between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter region of the SIRT1 gene and production and reproduction traits in the Agerolese cattle breed.
83  peak milk yield
(1 time)
Animal Diseases
(1 time)
DP (1 time)
IY (1 time)
LL (1 time)
2014 Variance components and genetic parameters for milk production and lactation pattern in an ethiopian multibreed dairy cattle population.
84  pectin yield
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
DE (1 time)
GA (1 time)
LSR (1 time)
2019 Efficient extraction and characterization of pectin from orange peel by a combined surfactant and microwave assisted process.
85  Pengxian yellow chicken
(1 time)
CK (1 time)
DH (1 time)
GS (1 time)
2017 Genetic Variation of Nine Chicken Breeds Collected from Different Altitudes Revealed by Microsatellites.
86  peptide-tyrosine
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
NPY (1 time)
PP (1 time)
PYY (1 time)
1993 Evolution of neuropeptide Y and its related peptides.
87  peptone-yeast extract broth
(1 time)
Microbiology
(1 time)
PYA (1 time)
1974 Heat injury and recovery of vegetative cells of Clostridium botulinum type E.
88  per 10(-5)personyear
(1 time)
Cardiology
(1 time)
ACS (1 time)
CVRF (1 time)
SIR (1 time)
2015 Acute coronary syndrome among patients with chest pain: Prevalence, incidence and risk factors.
89  percent yield
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
EE (1 time)
TPP (1 time)
2019 Human volunteer, in vitro, and molecular level evaluation of an optimized taste-masked isoniazid-chitosan spray-dried microparticle matrix.
90  periwinkle yellows
(1 time)
Microbiology
(1 time)
--- 2005 [Detection and identification of phytoplasma strain associated with periwinkle yellows].
91  Perplexity
(1 time)
Nervous System Diseases
(1 time)
BD (1 time)
Di (1 time)
SD (1 time)
2017 Sensing the Worst: Neurophenomenological Perspectives on Neutral Stimuli Misperception in Schizophrenia Spectrum.
92  person years observed
(1 time)
Tropical Medicine
(1 time)
HDSS (1 time)
NCDs (1 time)
VA (1 time)
2018 Pattern of all-causes and cause-specific mortality in an area with progressively declining malaria burden in Korogwe district, north-eastern Tanzania.
93  person yr
(1 time)
Gastroenterology
(1 time)
adjSHR (1 time)
DAA (1 time)
HCC (1 time)
2020 The impact of SVR from direct-acting antiviral- and interferon-based treatments for HCV on hepatocellular carcinoma risk.
94  person-years of observation
(1 time)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
(1 time)
CI (1 time)
MRRs (1 time)
2013 Mortality rates in people dually infected with HIV-1/2 and those infected with either HIV-1 or HIV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
95  phaeochromocytoma
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
ECHO (1 time)
EF (1 time)
LV (1 time)
2020 Phaeochromocytoma presenting as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.
96  phenotypes for deltamethrin
(1 time)
Parasitology
(1 time)
EOs (1 time)
YEOO (1 time)
2021 High larvicidal efficacy of yeast-encapsulated orange oil against Aedes aegypti strains from Brazil.
97  phenytoin
(1 time)
Drug Therapy
(1 time)
CE (1 time)
CM (1 time)
HPLC (1 time)
1997 Optimized high-performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of lamotrigine in serum with concomitant determination of phenytoin, carbamazepine, and carbamazepine epoxide.
98  photochemical efficiency
(1 time)
Biophysics
(1 time)
ALFA (1 time)
CDOM (1 time)
Chl (1 time)
2014 Aquatic laser fluorescence analyzer: field evaluation in the northern Gulf of Mexico.
99  photochemical yield
(1 time)
Biophysics
(1 time)
ALF (1 time)
CC (1 time)
CF (1 time)
2011 Photo-physiological variability in phytoplankton chlorophyll fluorescence and assessment of chlorophyll concentration.
100  Physcion
(1 time)
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
(1 time)
FA (1 time)
WAT (1 time)
2019 Physcion reduces lipid accumulation and prevents the obesity in mice.