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Abbreviation: RL
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Long forms: 560

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
reinforcement learning
(500 times)
Neurology
(79 times)
MDP (11 times)
DA (10 times)
AI (9 times)
1996 Multiagent reinforcement learning in the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma.
lung resistance
(260 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(100 times)
Cdyn (36 times)
EL (25 times)
MCh (20 times)
1976 Lung function after neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.
Ringer's lactate
(213 times)
General Surgery
(47 times)
HES (17 times)
MAP (17 times)
NS (17 times)
1977 Sepsis in the baboon: factors affecting resuscitation and pulmonary edema in animals resuscitated with Ringer's lactate versus Plasmanate.
reflection loss
(189 times)
Chemistry
(51 times)
EM (26 times)
EMW (18 times)
MA (15 times)
2009 Silica-coated iron nanocubes: preparation, characterization and application in microwave absorption.
right-left
(96 times)
Neoplasms
(28 times)
AP (64 times)
SI (48 times)
BAV (13 times)
1981 Standing balance in healthy boys and in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
red light
(85 times)
Botany
(17 times)
BL (37 times)
GL (30 times)
WL (25 times)
1985 Mode of coaction between blue/UV light and light absorbed by phytochrome in light-mediated anthocyanin formation in the milo (Sorghum vulgare Pers.) seedling.
rhamnolipid
(82 times)
Environmental Health
(24 times)
SL (8 times)
CMC (7 times)
SDS (7 times)
1997 Microbial extracellular glycolipid induction of differentiation and inhibition of the protein kinase C activity of human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL60.
root length
(76 times)
Environmental Health
(15 times)
SL (19 times)
RDW (17 times)
SDW (14 times)
2002 Peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activities, phenolic acid contents, and allelochemicals-inhibited root growth of soybean.
right lobe
(60 times)
Transplantation
(31 times)
LL (25 times)
LDLT (19 times)
LLS (8 times)
1985 Mechanisms of liver adaptation to prolonged selective biliary obstruction (SBO) in the rat.
10  radioluminescence
(48 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(16 times)
OSL (11 times)
PL (11 times)
TL (10 times)
2001 Analysis of luminescence spectra of leucite (KAISiO4).
11  right lateral
(31 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(8 times)
LL (14 times)
AP (5 times)
AS (4 times)
1990 [Revision of criteria for locating the accessory pathway by electrocardiogram in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. A new algorithm].
12  Richardson-Lucy
(30 times)
Biophysics
(8 times)
PSF (5 times)
LM (2 times)
SD (2 times)
1997 Acceleration of iterative image restoration algorithms.
13  Ringer's solution
(29 times)
Anesthesiology
(10 times)
HES (8 times)
PV (3 times)
SS (3 times)
1987 [Studies on adequate components and amounts of transfusion solution after hepatectomy from the viewpoint of the development of lung edema].
14  rugby league
(29 times)
Sports Medicine
(20 times)
RU (7 times)
CMJ (3 times)
JH (3 times)
2005 Spinal cord injuries in Australian footballers 1997-2002.
15  right lung
(23 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(4 times)
LL (16 times)
ANOVA (2 times)
ECG (2 times)
1981 Unilateral lung lavage: blood flow manipulation by ipsilateral pulmonary artery balloon inflation in dogs.
16  radiolunate
(22 times)
General Surgery
(6 times)
SL (13 times)
CT (3 times)
RS (3 times)
1993 A method for measuring tension in small ligaments: an application to the ligaments of the wrist carpus.
17  reticular lamina
(22 times)
Audiology
(8 times)
BM (16 times)
OHC (10 times)
TM (7 times)
1993 Sound preprocessing by ac and dc movements of cochlear outer hair cells.
18  Ringer's lactate solution
(21 times)
General Surgery
(5 times)
HES (3 times)
MAP (3 times)
CVP (2 times)
1981 Colloid or crystalloid in the resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock: a controlled clinical trial.
19  reference level
(19 times)
Radiology
(5 times)
DAP (3 times)
GM (2 times)
SA (2 times)
1999 Dose-area product readings for fluoroscopic and plain film examinations, including an analysis of the source of variation for barium enema examinations.
20  random laser
(17 times)
Ophthalmology
(8 times)
BO3 (1 time)
BP (1 time)
CA (1 time)
2011 Upconversion ultraviolet random lasing in Nd3+ doped fluoroindate glass powder.
21  reversal learning
(17 times)
Psychopharmacology
(4 times)
NOR (3 times)
CIAS (2 times)
EDS (2 times)
2008 Set shifting and reversal learning in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia.
22  random lasing
(16 times)
Biophysics
(6 times)
PMMA (2 times)
AL (1 time)
ASE (1 time)
2011 Remarkable decrease in threshold for electrically pumped random ultraviolet lasing from ZnO film by incorporation of Zn2TiO4 nanoparticles.
23  Renilla luciferase
(16 times)
Molecular Biology
(3 times)
FL (6 times)
GFP (4 times)
DSP (2 times)
2002 Inhibition of internal ribosomal entry site-directed translation of HCV by recombinant IFN-alpha correlates with a reduced La protein.
24  resistance of lung
(16 times)
Physiology
(9 times)
Cdyn (6 times)
PEEP (5 times)
FRC (4 times)
1981 Effects of beta adrenergic blockade on histamine and prostaglandin-F2 alpha responsiveness in the dog.
25  rump length
(15 times)
Molecular Biology
(4 times)
BL (9 times)
RW (7 times)
HW (6 times)
1998 Action potential duration restitution and electrical excitation propagation in a ring of cardiac cells.
26  reading-level
(13 times)
Psychology
(6 times)
CA (12 times)
DYS (2 times)
CI (1 time)
1997 Are speech perception deficits associated with developmental dyslexia?
27  receptive language
(13 times)
Pediatrics
(6 times)
EL (8 times)
ASD (6 times)
MSEL (3 times)
1981 Pediatric speech intelligibility test. II. Effect of receptive language age and chronological age.
28  radial length
(12 times)
Environmental Health
(3 times)
RI (3 times)
TC (3 times)
GE (2 times)
2004 Clinical results of external fixation for unstable Colles' fractures.
29  rhombic lip
(12 times)
Neurology
(8 times)
VZ (3 times)
GCPs (2 times)
Shh (2 times)
2005 Math1 expression redefines the rhombic lip derivatives and reveals novel lineages within the brainstem and cerebellum.
30  rostrolateral
(11 times)
Biology
(4 times)
LM (5 times)
RM (3 times)
AL (2 times)
1997 Visual connections of the atypical diencephalic nucleus rostrolateralis in Pantodon buchholzi (Teleostei, Osteoglossomorpha).
31  record linkage
(10 times)
Medical Informatics
(5 times)
AMI (1 time)
DNF (1 time)
DRL (1 time)
2008 [Record-linkage procedures in epidemiology: an Italian multicentre study].
32  recurrent laryngeal
(9 times)
Neurology
(6 times)
Phr (3 times)
HG (2 times)
SL (2 times)
1975 Effects of antitussive drugs on the activity of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in cats.
33  reference laboratory
(9 times)
Tropical Medicine
(2 times)
AFB (1 time)
AMC (1 time)
ARC (1 time)
1995 Reducing the cost of HIV-testing through use of the IgG antibody captured particle adherence test (GACPAT) in district hospitals.
34  renal length
(8 times)
Nephrology
(2 times)
E, L (3 times)
CSFK (2 times)
ML (2 times)
2002 Parenchymal consequences of fibromuscular dysplasia renal artery stenosis.
35  residual layer
(8 times)
Environmental Health
(6 times)
CLLJ (1 time)
CS (1 time)
GBLH (1 time)
2017 Structure and Mechanical Properties of Polybutadiene Thin Films Bound to Surface-Modified Carbon Interface.
36  round ligament
(8 times)
Histocytochemistry
(1 time)
AT (2 times)
POP (2 times)
USL (2 times)
1991 [Treatment of perforated peptic ulcer using the round ligament under celioscopy].
37  recessive lethal
(7 times)
Genetics
(4 times)
CL (3 times)
ENU (2 times)
EO (2 times)
1993 Characterization of the genotoxic action of three structurally related 1,2-dihaloalkanes in Drosophila melanogaster.
38  relative length
(7 times)
Radiology
(2 times)
ICM (4 times)
PAD (4 times)
SOAM (4 times)
1983 Synaptonemal complexes and the chromosome complement of domestic fowl, Gallus domesticus.
39  residual latency
(7 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
MCV (5 times)
TLI (4 times)
SCV (3 times)
1982 [Studies of peripheral nerve conduction velocities in vibrating tool operators].
40  response latency
(7 times)
Brain
(2 times)
RA (2 times)
CAR (1 time)
CI (1 time)
1977 Effects of Panax Ginseng root on conditioned avoidance response in rats.
41  relative loss
(6 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
RR (4 times)
IS (2 times)
3-OMD (1 time)
1991 The internal reference technique in microdialysis: a practical approach to monitoring dialysis efficiency and to calculating tissue concentration from dialysate samples.
42  reporting limit
(6 times)
Environmental Health
(4 times)
6-APB (1 time)
AD (1 time)
AIHA (1 time)
2011 Occurrence and distribution of sediment-associated insecticides in urban waterways in the Pearl River Delta, China.
43  resilience
(6 times)
Microbiological Phenomena
(2 times)
Rs (5 times)
AOB (1 time)
Ba-IBI (1 time)
2014 Activity of Arylsulphatase in Soil Contaminated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.
44  respiration in the light
(6 times)
Botany
(4 times)
AOX (4 times)
WT (4 times)
cyt (1 time)
2013 Photosynthetic activity and community shifts of microphytobenthos covered by green macroalgae.
45  radiation lobectomy
(5 times)
General Surgery
(1 time)
FLR (5 times)
PVE (3 times)
ALPPS (2 times)
2013 Radiation lobectomy: time-dependent analysis of future liver remnant volume in unresectable liver cancer as a bridge to resection.
46  radiolucent lines
(5 times)
Traumatology
(2 times)
OKS (2 times)
OUKR (2 times)
ROM (2 times)
2011 [Medium-term results of the Mayo™ short-stem hip prosthesis after avascular necrosis of the femoral head].
47  Rangpur lime
(5 times)
Botany
(2 times)
SM (3 times)
CAT (1 time)
GAPDH (1 time)
2016 Survival strategies of citrus rootstocks subjected to drought.
48  reactive lymphadenopathy
(5 times)
Pathology
(3 times)
DLBCL (3 times)
FL (3 times)
CDK3 (1 time)
2006 Quantitative analysis of herpesvirus load in the lymph nodes of patients with histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis using a real-time PCR assay.
49  reading-level matched
(5 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
CA (4 times)
CD (1 time)
DD (1 time)
2004 Reading comprehension skills of young adults with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia.
50  receptor-ligand
(5 times)
Biochemistry
(4 times)
TRH-R (2 times)
CCVs (1 time)
D.L (1 time)
1992 Purification of a pituitary receptor for somatostatin. The utility of biotinylated somatostatin analogs.
51  reflux laryngitis
(5 times)
Otolaryngology
(4 times)
GEPR (1 time)
GORD (1 time)
GRB (1 time)
2004 Multidimensional voice analysis of reflux laryngitis patients.
52  rehydrated, lyophilized
(5 times)
Hematology
(4 times)
PLT (1 time)
vWF (1 time)
2000 Intracellular function in rehydrated lyophilized platelets.
53  relapse
(5 times)
Nephrology
(3 times)
RM (3 times)
SSNS (3 times)
CR (2 times)
2001 Follow-up of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome: tubular proteinuria and enzymuria.
54  reverse logistics
(5 times)
Toxicology
(5 times)
DEMATEL (1 time)
DW (1 time)
OTR (1 time)
2019 Reverse logistics network design for large off-the-road scrap tires from mining sites with a single shredding resource scheduling application.
55  rhamnolipid biosurfactant
(5 times)
Technology
(2 times)
BC (1 time)
CMC (1 time)
PI (1 time)
2003 Enhanced bioremediation of n-alkane in petroleum sludge using bacterial consortium amended with rhamnolipid and micronutrients.
56  right lobectomy
(5 times)
Transplantation
(3 times)
LL (3 times)
LLS (3 times)
GW (2 times)
1986 Results of 32 major hepatic resections for primary and secondary malignancies of the liver.
57  roof line
(5 times)
Cardiology
(2 times)
AF (4 times)
PVI (3 times)
AL (2 times)
2014 Benefit of left atrial roof linear ablation in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: a prospective, randomized study.
58  rule learning
(5 times)
Infant
(2 times)
WIST (1 time)
1977 Schizophrenic cognitive dysfunction: a deficit in rule transfer.
59  raw leachate
(4 times)
Environmental Health
(3 times)
AOP (1 time)
BTL (1 time)
HM (1 time)
2004 Heavy metal pollution from Russian landfill leachates and its elimination together with other contaminants.
60  realistic Laplacian
(4 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
GCV (2 times)
BEM (1 time)
RBF (1 time)
1996 Spline Laplacian estimate of EEG potentials over a realistic magnetic resonance-constructed scalp surface model.
61  REM latency
(4 times)
Psychiatry
(2 times)
EEG (1 time)
MDD (1 time)
MT (1 time)
1985 "Paradoxical" shortening of REM latency on first recording night in major depressive disorder: clinical and polysomnographic correlates.
62  remnant liver
(4 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
MMP (2 times)
EH (1 time)
MBLM (1 time)
2003 One or two-stage hepatectomy combined with portal vein embolization for initially nonresectable colorectal liver metastases.
63  resistance loading
(4 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
HSP (1 time)
MGF (1 time)
MRFs (1 time)
2005 Impact of resistance loading on myostatin expression and cell cycle regulation in young and older men and women.
64  retrolabyrinthine
(4 times)
Neurosurgery
(2 times)
AETL (1 time)
CSF (1 time)
IAM (1 time)
1988 Retrolabyrinthine versus middle fossa vestibular neurectomy.
65  retrolingual
(4 times)
Psychophysiology
(3 times)
OSA (3 times)
RP (3 times)
MMA (2 times)
2008 Computer-assisted quantitative evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea using digitalized endoscopic imaging with Muller maneuver.
66  ribosomal lineages
(4 times)
Parasitology
(1 time)
PCR (1 time)
QTP (1 time)
2011 Increased sampling reveals novel lineages of Entamoeba: consequences of genetic diversity and host specificity for taxonomy and molecular detection.
67  robot-assisted laparoscopy
(4 times)
Gynecology
(2 times)
CL (4 times)
2010 Robotics versus laparoscopy--an experimental study of the transfer effect in maiden users.
68  rope-ladder
(4 times)
Nephrology
(4 times)
AVF (4 times)
BH (3 times)
AP (1 time)
2013 The effect of buttonhole cannulation vs. rope-ladder technique on hemodialysis access patency.
69  Roux limb
(4 times)
Metabolism
(3 times)
BMI (1 time)
BPL (1 time)
CC (1 time)
2007 The impact of roux limb length on weight loss after gastric bypass.
70  lactated Ringer's
(3 times)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
Gel (2 times)
HES (2 times)
ADSOL (1 time)
1989 Compatibility of ADSOL-stored red cells with intravenous solutions.
71  long repeat region
(3 times)
Virology
(3 times)
HSV-1 (2 times)
HSV-2 (1 time)
IRL (1 time)
1988 The DNA sequences of the long repeat region and adjoining parts of the long unique region in the genome of herpes simplex virus type 1.
72  longitudinal resistance
(3 times)
Vascular Diseases
(2 times)
AV (1 time)
PGR (1 time)
RT (1 time)
1999 The effect of 'non-critical' (<50%) stenosis on vein graft longitudinal resistance and impedance.
73  N-(all-trans-retinoyl)-DL-leucine
(3 times)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
RA (3 times)
RG (2 times)
4-HPR (1 time)
1988 Toxicologic and immunologic evaluations of N-(all-trans-retinoyl)-DL-leucine and N-(all-trans-retinoyl)glycine.
74  raised lesions
(3 times)
Pathology
(2 times)
FS (2 times)
TC (2 times)
CHD (1 time)
1988 Natural history of aortic and coronary atherosclerosis in Tokyo.
75  rasagenthi lehyam
(3 times)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
CAM (1 time)
cRL (1 time)
2004 Rasagenthi lehyam (RL) a novel complementary and alternative medicine for prostate cancer.
76  reaction layer
(3 times)
Biophysics
(1 time)
AL (1 time)
CVD (1 time)
ER (1 time)
1996 Visualization of the reaction layer in the immediate membrane vicinity.
77  real life
(3 times)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
VR (2 times)
PFS (1 time)
RCT (1 time)
2016 Virtual shopping: A viable alternative to direct assessment of real life function?
78  received letters
(3 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
MFA (1 time)
1986 Continuity of care after July: what happens to the resident's patients?
79  recirculated landfill
(3 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
CL (3 times)
BL (2 times)
DBP (1 time)
2010 Migration behavior of Cu and Zn in landfill with different operation modes.
80  recommended level
(3 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(2 times)
CRZ (2 times)
DMZ (2 times)
IPZ (2 times)
2008 Effect of protein intake on strength, body composition and endocrine changes in strength/power athletes.
81  reconfigurable logic
(3 times)
Nanotechnology
(2 times)
CMOS-NEM (2 times)
M3D (2 times)
FEM (1 time)
2020 Monolithic-3D (M3D) Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Nanoelectromechanical (CMOS-NEM) Hybrid Reconfigurable Logic (RL) Circuits.
82  red laser
(3 times)
Therapeutics
(1 time)
aPDT (1 time)
CT (1 time)
IRL (1 time)
2017 Comparison of photoinactivation of T. rubrum by new methylene blue (NMB) and indocyanine green (EmunDo).
83  red LED
(3 times)
Biotechnology
(1 time)
BL (3 times)
LED (2 times)
aPDT (1 time)
2013 Antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy using high-power blue light-emitting diode and red-dye agent on Porphyromonas gingivalis.
84  refractive lenticule
(3 times)
Ophthalmology
(2 times)
AS-OCT (1 time)
FSL (1 time)
LASIK (1 time)
2012 Refractive lenticule re-implantation after myopic ReLEx: a feasibility study of stromal restoration after refractive surgery in a rabbit model.
85  regenerating liver
(3 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
LI (2 times)
5mC (1 time)
AU (1 time)
1987 The effects of postoperative factors on serum thyroid hormones and rat liver nuclear 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine receptor concentrations in surgical models of uremia and regenerating liver.
86  regional lymphadenectomy
(3 times)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
Ch (1 time)
GBC (1 time)
HEP (1 time)
1982 The treatment of state I melanoma of the extremities with regional hyperthermic isolation perfusion.
87  relaparotomy
(3 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
AEPI (1 time)
GIS (1 time)
1997 [Acute early postoperative intestinal obstruction in patients with gastroduodenal ulcer].
88  reloading
(3 times)
Orthopedics
(1 time)
UL (2 times)
COX-2 (1 time)
DAVID (1 time)
2006 Cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibition suppresses restoration of tibial trabecular bone formation in association with restriction of osteoblast maturation in skeletal reloading after hindlimb elevation of mice.
89  repetitive loading
(3 times)
Physiology
(1 time)
EEG (1 time)
GPx (1 time)
HRV (1 time)
1998 Gender comparison of peak oxygen uptake: repetitive box lifting versus treadmill running.
90  representation learning
(3 times)
Medical Informatics
(1 time)
AF (1 time)
DL (1 time)
ECG (1 time)
2019 On the Effectiveness of Deep Representation Learning: the Atrial Fibrillation Case.
91  resistive load
(3 times)
Respiratory Physiological Phenomena
(1 time)
BRS (1 time)
CC16 (1 time)
CF (1 time)
2012 Resetting the baroreflex during snoring: role of resistive loading and intra-thoracic pressure.
92  resolution length
(3 times)
General Surgery
(1 time)
BFP (1 time)
dsRNA (1 time)
HEC (1 time)
2015 Analysis of small interfering RNA by capillary electrophoresis in hydroxyethylcellulose solutions.
93  resorption lacunae
(3 times)
Metabolism
(1 time)
ES/BS (1 time)
FAS (1 time)
LER (1 time)
2004 First inventory of resorption lacunae on rods and plates of trabecular bone as observed by scanning electron microscopy.
94  restaging laparotomy
(3 times)
Radiology
(1 time)
HD (2 times)
CR (1 time)
RFS (1 time)
1983 Restaging laparotomy for Hodgkin's disease.
95  resting muscle length
(3 times)
Pharmacology
(2 times)
EE (2 times)
AM (1 time)
AM22-52 (1 time)
2006 Angiotensin II acutely decreases myocardial stiffness: a novel AT1, PKC and Na+/H+ exchanger-mediated effect.
96  restless legs
(3 times)
Psychophysiology
(3 times)
PLMS (2 times)
COMISA (1 time)
ESS (1 time)
1996 Augmentation of the restless legs syndrome with carbidopa/levodopa.
97  reticulocyte lysate
(3 times)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
BAC (1 time)
EMSA (1 time)
HSP (1 time)
2000 Quantitative analysis of DNA binding affinity and dimerization properties of wild-type and mutant thyroid hormone receptor beta1.
98  return loss
(3 times)
Optics and Photonics
(2 times)
DDM (1 time)
ER (1 time)
IL (1 time)
1998 Microwave catheter design.
99  rhizobium-legume
(3 times)
Proteomics
(1 time)
AM (2 times)
CO (1 time)
CSP (1 time)
2010 Medicago truncatula proteomics.
100  Rhus laccase
(3 times)
Molecular Biology
(3 times)
CGEC (1 time)
FTIR (1 time)
I-RL (1 time)
2006 Purification and characterization of hydrosoluble components from the sap of Chinese lacquer tree Rhus vernicifera.