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Abbreviation: Ra
Appearance Frequency: 954 time(s)
Long forms: 159

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
rate of appearance
(218 times)
Physiology
(78 times)
Rd (30 times)
FFA (28 times)
MCR (8 times)
1975 Estimation of cyclic AMP turnover in normal and methylprednisolone-treated dogs: effect of catecholamines.
average roughness
(82 times)
Dentistry
(27 times)
AFM (14 times)
SEM (12 times)
cpTi (4 times)
1993 Bond strength of composite to etched and sandblasted porcelain.
resistance
(80 times)
Physiology
(29 times)
Re (17 times)
GFR (13 times)
RBF (7 times)
1973 Resistance to drainage of cerebrospinal fluid: clinical measurement and significance.
rate
(67 times)
Physiology
(17 times)
FFA (4 times)
DCA (2 times)
EGP (2 times)
1978 Changes induced by exercise in rates of turnover and oxidation of ketone bodies in fasting man.
rate of glucose appearance
(55 times)
Physiology
(23 times)
MCR (5 times)
Rd (5 times)
CHO (2 times)
1979 Effect of intermittent endogenous hyperglucagonemia on glucose homeostasis in normal and diabetic man.
roughness average
(52 times)
Dentistry
(30 times)
AFM (10 times)
RMS (10 times)
SEM (7 times)
1992 Efficacy of a porcelain refinishing system in restoring surface finish after grinding with fine and extra-fine diamond burs.
roughness values
(50 times)
Dentistry
(29 times)
SEM (10 times)
AFM (4 times)
ANOVA (4 times)
1994 Acquired nail beading in patients receiving itraconazole--an indicator of faster nail growth? A study using optical profilometry.
radium
(36 times)
Environmental Health
(22 times)
Th (9 times)
Po (5 times)
Rn (5 times)
1998 Late complications after postoperative radiotherapy in endometrial cancer: analysis of 317 consecutive cases with application of linear-quadratic model.
respiration
(28 times)
Environmental Health
(13 times)
Rh (15 times)
GPP (11 times)
Rs (10 times)
2002 Forest carbon balance under elevated CO2.
10  Rayleigh number
(21 times)
Biophysics
(9 times)
Nu (9 times)
Pr (7 times)
Re (2 times)
2000 Turbulent convection at very high Rayleigh numbers
11  ragged
(11 times)
Molecular Biology
(3 times)
LAMA5 (2 times)
Ragl (1 time)
wst (1 time)
1994 Linkage mapping around the ragged (Ra) and wasted (wst) loci on distal mouse chromosome 2.
12  roughness measurements
(11 times)
Dentistry
(10 times)
CA (1 time)
CFUs (1 time)
CLSM (1 time)
1994 Surface roughness of two polished ceramic materials.
13  reabsorption of CSF
(10 times)
Anesthesiology
(9 times)
CSF (9 times)
EEG (2 times)
ICP (2 times)
1988 Muscle relaxation with succinylcholine or vecuronium does not alter the rate of CSF production or resistance to reabsorption of CSF in dogs.
14  Rheumatoid Arthritis
(8 times)
Pharmacology
(6 times)
Cd (1 time)
ICC (1 time)
MTX (1 time)
1982 Rheumatoid lymphoedema.
15  rate of hepatic glucose production
(7 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
2-DG (1 time)
CHO (1 time)
EE (1 time)
1981 Chromatographic pattern of extrapancreatic glucagon and glucagon-like immunoreactivity before and during stimulation by epinephrine and participation of glucagon in epinephrine-induced hepatic glucose overproduction.
16  roughness parameter
(7 times)
Dentistry
(2 times)
AFM (2 times)
BCP (1 time)
CMP (1 time)
2006 Surface roughness in ceramics with different finishing techniques using atomic force microscope and profilometer.
17  arithmetic roughness
(6 times)
Dentistry
(2 times)
ANOVA (1 time)
CA (1 time)
DTMA (1 time)
2007 Shark fin test and impression quality: a correlation analysis.
18  radiation
(6 times)
Science
(2 times)
Ada (1 time)
Ca (1 time)
CAT (1 time)
2007 The RACOX phase I study: radiation (RA), capecitabine (C) and oxaliplatin (OX) as adjuvant treatment of stage II and III rectal cancer.
19  rate of glucose production
(6 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
IRG (1 time)
IRI (1 time)
NE (1 time)
1984 Interactions between glucagon and other counterregulatory hormones during normoglycemic and hypoglycemic exercise in dogs.
20  Rayleigh
(6 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
Nu (2 times)
Pr (2 times)
DNS (1 time)
2001 Convective rolls and heat transfer in finite-length rayleigh-Benard convection: A two-dimensional numerical study
21  radium concentration EC
(5 times)
Environmental Health
(4 times)
WRF (1 time)
2012 Measuring effective radium concentration with less than 5 g of rock or soil.
22  RESULTS: The surface roughness
(5 times)
Dentistry
(3 times)
CP (1 time)
CPT (1 time)
DEN (1 time)
2012 Effects of different surface treatments on stainability of ceramics.
23  radium-223
(4 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
CRPC (1 time)
2010 Life-span study on late effects of 224Ra in children and adults.
24  Rambouillet
(4 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
Finn (4 times)
MB (1 time)
SB (1 time)
1984 The influence of fetal genome on cortisol biokinetics and gestational duration.
25  raphe
(4 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
OT (2 times)
SC (2 times)
AD (1 time)
1987 Neurotransmitters and memory: role of cholinergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic systems.
26  raphe nucleus
(3 times)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
CART (2 times)
NIV (2 times)
PD (2 times)
2014 Temperature dependent changes in cocaine- and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) peptide in the brain of tadpole, Sylvirana temporalis.
27  rate of production
(3 times)
Metabolism
(2 times)
2max (1 time)
CON (1 time)
IE (1 time)
1976 The essentiality of insulin and the role of glucagon in regulating glucose utilization and production during strenuous exercise in dogs.
28  reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid
(3 times)
Anesthesiology
(2 times)
CPP (1 time)
CSF (1 time)
EEG (1 time)
1984 Effects of enflurane and isoflurane on resistance to reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid in dogs.
29  reading of surface roughness
(3 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
ANOVA (1 time)
F/P (1 time)
2018 Evaluation of Surface Roughness of Nanofilled Composite Restorations after Simulated Tooth Brushing using Various Dentifrices.
30  rectal cancer
(3 times)
Antineoplastic Agents
(3 times)
CR (1 time)
RPMI (1 time)
2009 [A case report of complete response to RPMI regimen for multiple lymph node metastases following rectal cancer surgery].
31  relative agreement
(3 times)
Medical Informatics
(2 times)
Aa (2 times)
ED (1 time)
OT (1 time)
2008 A novel method for measuring patients' adherence to insulin dosing guidelines: introducing indicators of adherence.
32  resistance of afferent
(3 times)
Nephrology
(3 times)
AABF (3 times)
EABF (2 times)
SNFF (2 times)
1977 Effects of acute ureteral obstruction on glomerular hemodynamics in rat kidney.
33  roughness analysis
(3 times)
Dentistry
(3 times)
BS (1 time)
CLSM (1 time)
EGF (1 time)
2011 Confocal laser microscopic analysis of biofilm on newer feldspar ceramic.
34  roughness parameters, average roughness
(3 times)
Dentistry
(2 times)
LR (2 times)
ARI (1 time)
Rmax (1 time)
2003 Surface geometry of three packable and one hybrid composite after finishing.
35  226radium
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
CR (1 time)
Po (1 time)
Th (1 time)
1992 Radium-226 levels and concentration ratios between water, vegetation, and tissues of ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) from a watershed with uranium tailings near Elliot Lake, Canada.
36  rabbit
(2 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
ADCC (1 time)
aggG (1 time)
ALS (1 time)
1982 Heterogeneity of human lymphocyte Fc receptors: studies using heat-aggregated and antigen-complexed IgG from human, rabbit, guinea pig, horse and goat.
37  rainfall amount
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
CEC (1 time)
CL (1 time)
FO (1 time)
2020 Effects of rainfall and terracing-vegetation combinations on water erosion in a loess hilly area, China.
38  raltitrexed
(2 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
GC (2 times)
HIPPC (2 times)
MMC (2 times)
2016 Laparoscopic Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Perfusion Chemotherapy for Patients with Malignant Ascites Secondary to Unresectable Gastric Cancer.
39  Raphanusanin
(2 times)
Botany
(2 times)
A. thaliana (1 time)
B. cinerea (1 time)
GO (1 time)
2010 Comparative transcriptional profiling-based identification of raphanusanin-inducible genes.
40  rates of amino acid appearance
(2 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
Leu (1 time)
Phe (1 time)
Rd (1 time)
1990 Effect of starvation on human muscle protein metabolism and its response to insulin.
41  rates of plasma FFA appearance
(2 times)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
FFA (1 time)
SGLT2 (1 time)
TG (1 time)
2001 Thiazolidinediones increase plasma-adipose tissue FFA exchange capacity and enhance insulin-mediated control of systemic FFA availability.
42  Re, autotrophic respiration
(2 times)
Natural Science Disciplines
(1 time)
Rh (2 times)
Rs (2 times)
GLAI (1 time)
2017 Ecosystem respiration and its components in a rainfed spring maize cropland in the Loess Plateau, China.
43  resistance at the afferent arteriole
(2 times)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
CPAH (2 times)
GFR (1 time)
RBF (1 time)
2013 Relationship between serum TSH levels and intrarenal hemodynamic parameters in euthyroid subjects.
44  resistance in air
(2 times)
Natural Science Disciplines
(1 time)
KPFM (1 time)
2020 Direct observation of potential phase at joining interface between p-MgO and n-MgFe2O4.
45  resistances of the apical
(2 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
CF (1 time)
EMF (1 time)
HT (1 time)
1988 Evidence for reduced Cl- and increased Na+ permeability in cystic fibrosis human primary cell cultures.
46  Rs and its autotrophic
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
Rs (2 times)
2020 Response of Soil Respiration and Its Components to Warming and Dominant Species Removal along an Elevation Gradient in Alpine Meadow of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.
47  surface-roughness gradients of average roughness
(2 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(2 times)
PCL (2 times)
RSm (2 times)
ALP (1 time)
2014 Differential regulation of osteogenic differentiation of stem cells on surface roughness gradients.
48  analyses: roughness
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
FSE (1 time)
INF (1 time)
INF-Ag4 (1 time)
2022 Biofilm formation and cell viability on monolithic zirconia with silver-doped sodalime glass.
49  average roughness index
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
CaP (1 time)
MSCs (1 time)
2020 Gene Expression Regulation and Secretory Activity of Mesenchymal Stem Cells upon In Vitro Contact with Microarc Calcium Phosphate Coating.
50  averaged reflectivity
(1 time)
Polymers
(1 time)
MHSC (1 time)
2022 Study on Microwave Absorption Performance Enhancement of Metamaterial/Honeycomb Sandwich Composites in the Low Frequency Band.
51  BCP-R had a surface roughness
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
CaP (1 time)
2014 Microporous calcium phosphate ceramics driving osteogenesis through surface architecture.
52  R wave
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
BP (1 time)
Dd (1 time)
DNa (1 time)
1992 Effects of adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists on cardiovascular functional parameters in rats.
53  R-wave amplitude
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
OSA (1 time)
2022 Detecting Obstructive Apnea Episodes using Dynamic Bayesian Networks and ECG-based Time-Series.
54  Ra-Dichloride
(1 time)
Nuclear Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2013 Phase I pharmacokinetic and biodistribution study with escalating doses of Ra-dichloride in men with castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer.
55  Radium was separated as Ba
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
--- 2001 Simultaneous determination of 226Ra and 210Pb in groundwater and soil samples by using the liquid scintillation counter-suspension gel method.
56  radium-223 dichloride
(1 time)
Nuclear Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2017 Excretion and whole-body retention of radium-223 dichloride administered for the treatment of bone metastases from castration resistant prostate cancer.
57  raisins
(1 time)
Food
(1 time)
DApp (1 time)
DApr (1 time)
DF (1 time)
2018 Postprandial Glycaemic Responses of Dried Fruit-Containing Meals in Healthy Adults: Results from a Randomised Trial.
58  Ramachandran water-bridge capacity h
(1 time)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
CDF (1 time)
NMR titration (1 time)
pmc (1 time)
2007 Verification of simple hydration/dehydration methods to characterize multiple water compartments on tendon type 1 collagen.
59  ramus
(1 time)
Natural Science Disciplines
(1 time)
AP (1 time)
CBCT (1 time)
Ch (1 time)
2022 Introducing surface-to-surface matching technique to evaluate mandibular symmetry: A retrospective study.
60  range of nondimensional buoyancy forcing
(1 time)
Science
(1 time)
--- 2013 Turbulent convection in liquid metal with and without rotation.
61  ranibizumab
(1 time)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
DEX (1 time)
2017 DEXAMETHASONE INTRAVITREAL IMPLANT VS RANIBIZUMAB IN THE TREATMENT OF MACULAR EDEMA SECONDARY TO BRACHYTHERAPY FOR CHOROIDAL MELANOMA.
62  rank
(1 time)
Psychology, Clinical
(1 time)
AIMIT (1 time)
CG (1 time)
IMS (1 time)
2011 Assessment of Interpersonal Motivation in Transcripts (AIMIT): an inter- and intra-rater reliability study of a new method of detection of interpersonal motivational systems in psychotherapy.
63  ranking of SR values
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
AO (1 time)
IM (1 time)
RS (1 time)
2012 Durability of composite repair using different surface treatments.
64  Ranna (Sicily, Italy), SD
(1 time)
Genetics
(1 time)
SD (1 time)
1980 Cytogenetic Analysis of an SD Chromosome from a Natural Population of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER.
65  rapamycin in DMSO
(1 time)
Nephrology
(1 time)
DMSO (1 time)
NS (1 time)
2016 The effect of rapamycin on TGFbeta1 and MMP1 expression in a rabbit model of urethral stricture.
66  Rapid
(1 time)
Genetics
(1 time)
ALL (1 time)
SC (1 time)
2022 RaScALL: Rapid (Ra) screening (Sc) of RNA-seq data for prognostically significant genomic alterations in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL).
67  rapid-acting insulin analogs
(1 time)
Diabetes Mellitus
(1 time)
GLU (1 time)
2015 Efficacy and safety of switching to insulin glulisine from other rapid-acting insulin analogs in children with type 1 diabetes.
68  Rasht
(1 time)
Zoology
(1 time)
AChE (1 time)
ALP (1 time)
Am (1 time)
2009 Diazinon resistance in different selected strains of Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in northern Iran.
69  rat heart sarcolemma contains adenosine
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
Ado N'-oxide (1 time)
NECA (1 time)
PIA (1 time)
1985 Regulation of adenylate cyclase by adenosine and other agonists in rat myocardial sarcolemma.
70  rate (endogenous + exogenous)
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
CHO (1 time)
1996 Fuel substrate turnover and oxidation and glycogen sparing with carbohydrate ingestion in non-carbohydrate-loaded cyclists.
71  rate of appearance in plasma
(1 time)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
LC/HP (1 time)
2005 Effects of dietary carbohydrate restriction with high protein intake on protein metabolism and the somatotropic axis.
72  rate of endogenous glucose production
(1 time)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
Rd (2 times)
TBG (1 time)
1998 Novel hepatoselective insulin analogues: studies with covalently linked thyroxyl-insulin complexes.
73  rate of monomer addition
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
--- 2013 Semicontinuous monomer-starved emulsion polymerization as a means to produce nanolatexes: analysis of nucleation stage.
74  rate of turnover
(1 time)
Aerospace Medicine
(1 time)
--- 1999 Cold stress increases lipolysis, FFA Ra and TG/FFA cycling in humans.
75  rate of weight loss
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
SZ (1 time)
2021 Study on microwave pyrolysis and production characteristics of Chlorella vulgaris using different compound additives.
76  rates in the atmosphere
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
AN (1 time)
FL (1 time)
PH (1 time)
2002 Exposure chamber measurements of mass transfer and partitioning at the plant/air interface.
77  rates of endogenous glucose appearance
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
IGT (1 time)
ND (1 time)
1991 Insulin secretion and action in patients with pancreatic cancer.
78  rates of endogenous glucose turnover
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
FFM (1 time)
Rox (1 time)
1994 Glucose kinetics during prolonged exercise in euglycaemic and hyperglycaemic subjects.
79  rates of net ammonification
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
--- 2017 Long-term net transformation and quantitative molecular mechanisms of soil nitrogen during natural vegetation recovery of abandoned farmland on the Loess Plateau of China.
80  rates of peripheral appearance
(1 time)
Metabolism
(1 time)
--- 1978 Initial splanchnic extraction of ingested glucose in normal man.
81  Rates of whole-body glucose appearance
(1 time)
Cardiology
(1 time)
MCR (1 time)
2000 Alterations in tissue glucose uptake during the hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic phases of sepsis.
82  ratio C
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
GUM (1 time)
2012 Evaluation of uncertainty and detection limits in 210Pb and 210Po measurement in water by alpha spectrometry using 210Po spontaneous deposition onto a silver disk.
83  ratio of 1.40 E-06
(1 time)
Natural Science Disciplines
(1 time)
--- 2019 Differential Diffusion of Helium Isotopes in Glass, Quantum-tunneling 3He Enrichment, and Portable 3He/4He Monitoring of Mantle Processes.
84  ratio of accumulation
(1 time)
Drug Therapy
(1 time)
BE (1 time)
CI (1 time)
DDI (1 time)
2014 Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of olmesartan medoxomil plus hydrochlorothiazide combination in healthy Chinese subjects: drug-drug interaction, bioequivalence, and accumulation.
85  ratio of each test substance
(1 time)
Toxicology
(1 time)
HSP (1 time)
Vitrigel-EIT (1 time)
2021 An alternative predictor of eye irritation that utilizes potential parameters of the human corneal epithelium model calculated based on Hansen solubility parameters.
86  ratios of pre-capillary
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
RT (1 time)
1979 Vertical gradient in regional vascular resistance and pre to post capillary resistance ratios in the dog lung.
87  Raven
(1 time)
Pediatrics
(1 time)
Ro (1 time)
Tm (1 time)
1996 Altered maternal psychological profile as health risk factor in poor urban infants.
88  RBC and the whole-cell access
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
LOC (1 time)
RBCs (1 time)
2015 A lab-on-a-chip for hypoxic patch clamp measurements combined with optical tweezers and spectroscopy- first investigations of single biological cells.
89  reabsorption
(1 time)
Anesthesiology
(1 time)
CSF (1 time)
1991 Dose-related changes in the rate of CSF formation and resistance to reabsorption of CSF during administration of fentanyl, sufentanil, or alfentanil in dogs.
90  reactance
(1 time)
Emergency Medicine
(1 time)
AHF (1 time)
BIVA (1 time)
BNP (1 time)
2015 Bioelectrical impedance analysis for heart failure diagnosis in the ED.
91  reactor
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
AD (1 time)
BMP (1 time)
CM (1 time)
2020 The biomethanation of cow manure in a continuous anaerobic digester can be boosted via a bioaugmentation culture containing Bathyarchaeota.
92  readings using a roughness tester
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
ES (1 time)
FZ2 (1 time)
2012 Impact of filler size and distribution on roughness and wear of composite resin after simulated toothbrushing.
93  receptors depending upon the activation
(1 time)
Drug Therapy
(1 time)
L-PIA (1 time)
1985 Evidence suggesting an Ra-type adenosine receptor in bovine coronary arteries.
94  recorded profile, the average roughness
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
SEM (1 time)
2013 Surface properties of dental nanocomposites after finishing with rigid rotary instruments.
95  recorded, arithmetical mean roughness value
(1 time)
FSP (1 time)
Rq (1 time)
SRT (1 time)
2019 Experimental data on surface roughness and force feedback analysis in friction stir processed AA7075 - T651 aluminium metal composites.
96  rectal colon
(1 time)
Antineoplastic Agents
(1 time)
--- 2007 [A case of advanced colon cancer invading the rectum effectively treated with chemoradiation therapy before surgery].
97  rectum above the peritoneal reflection
(1 time)
Gastroenterology
(1 time)
--- 2019 [Curative endoscopic submucosal dissection of laterally spreading sporadic tumor in ulcerative colitis:a case report].
98  reduce surface roughness
(1 time)
BWE (1 time)
MRR (1 time)
ZCSMWE (1 time)
2022 A New Wire Electrode for Improving the Machining Characteristics of High-Volume Fraction SiCp/Al Composite in WEDM.
99  reduced the mean roughness
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
XRD (1 time)
2015 Extended glaze firing improves flexural strength of a glass ceramic.
100  reducing significantly the surface roughness
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
--- 1991 Refinishing of porcelain by using a refinishing kit.