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Abbreviation: SPF
Appearance Frequency: 3228 time(s)
Long forms: 220

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
specific pathogen-free
(1720 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(635 times)
GF (161 times)
NDV (65 times)
ELISA (63 times)
1961 Swine repopulation. IV. Influence of management upon the growth of specific pathogen-free (SPF) pigs.
sun protection factor
(521 times)
Dermatology
(227 times)
UV (101 times)
UVR (32 times)
MED (21 times)
1968 Passive transfer of acquired resistance in mice to group B Arboviruses by serum protective factor(s) (SPF) independent of serum neutralizing antibody or interferon.
S-phase fraction
(492 times)
Neoplasms
(277 times)
FCM (54 times)
DI (38 times)
PI (28 times)
1978 Subpopulations of breast carcinoma defined by S-phase fraction, morphology, and estrogen receptor content.
Supernatant protein factor
(21 times)
Biochemistry
(14 times)
alpha-TTP (4 times)
CRALBP (2 times)
PG (2 times)
1977 Purification and properties of a soluble protein activator of rat liver squalene epoxidase.
synthetic phase fraction
(20 times)
Pathology
(6 times)
PI (5 times)
FCM (3 times)
PCNA (3 times)
1988 Flow cytometric DNA analysis of colon adenocarcinomas: a comparative study of preparatory techniques.
safety performance function
(18 times)
Traumatology
(13 times)
CMFs (3 times)
CT (2 times)
EB (2 times)
2012 Measuring safety treatment effects using full Bayes non-linear safety performance intervention functions.
side-polished fiber
(18 times)
Ophthalmology
(12 times)
SA (4 times)
RH (2 times)
SPR (2 times)
1997 Fabrication of a side-polished fiber polarizer with a biref ringent polymer overlay.
sphenopalatine foramen
(18 times)
Otolaryngology
(9 times)
SPA (4 times)
FR (3 times)
PPF (3 times)
1998 Osteologic classification of the sphenopalatine foramen.
spinopelvic fixation
(12 times)
Orthopedics
(7 times)
PPRF (4 times)
ASCF (3 times)
S2AI (3 times)
2013 Fixation techniques for complex traumatic transverse sacral fractures: a systematic review.
10  sustained pain free
(12 times)
Neurology
(7 times)
PF (5 times)
SNAE (5 times)
PR (4 times)
2005 Focus on trial endpoints of clinical relevance and the use of almotriptan for the acute treatment of migraine.
11  sodefrin precursor-like factor
(11 times)
Biology
(4 times)
PRF (4 times)
PMF (3 times)
ESTs (1 time)
2006 In situ localization of plethodontid courtship pheromone mRNA in formalin-fixed tissue.
12  Subarachnoid pleural fistula
(10 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
CSF (3 times)
MR (1 time)
NPPV (1 time)
2002 Massive pleural effusion as the presenting feature of a subarachnoid-pleural fistula.
13  subparafascicular thalamic nucleus
(10 times)
Brain
(6 times)
IC (4 times)
DPB (3 times)
LC (3 times)
1988 Single thalamic dopaminergic neurons project to both the neocortex and spinal cord.
14  spray polyurethane foam
(9 times)
Environmental Health
(6 times)
MDI (4 times)
GM (3 times)
TCPP (3 times)
2014 Health effects associated with faulty application of spray polyurethane foam in residential homes.
15  solar photo-Fenton
(7 times)
Environmental Health
(7 times)
NF (2 times)
TPs (2 times)
ANZ (1 time)
2016 Application of solar photo-Fenton toward toxicity removal and textile wastewater reuse.
16  S-phase cell fraction
(6 times)
Complementary Therapies
(2 times)
PI (3 times)
FCM (2 times)
AI (1 time)
2004 Cell apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocellular carcinoma after transarterial chemoembolization.
17  sweet potato flour
(6 times)
Chemistry
(3 times)
AME (1 time)
AST (1 time)
DMI (1 time)
1999 Accurate estimation of sweetpotato amylase activity by flour viscosity analysis.
18  short PCR fragment
(5 times)
Pathology
(3 times)
HPV (4 times)
HR-HPV (2 times)
PCR (2 times)
1998 Novel short-fragment PCR assay for highly sensitive broad-spectrum detection of anogenital human papillomaviruses.
19  signed pressure force
(5 times)
Medical Informatics
(3 times)
ACWE (1 time)
LBF (1 time)
MR (1 time)
2014 Segmentation of intensity inhomogeneous brain MR images using active contours.
20  suprofen
(5 times)
Pharmacology
(3 times)
BSA (1 time)
BZP (1 time)
CAL (1 time)
1984 [Interaction of suprofen and serum albumin].
21  synthetic polyurethane foam
(5 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
VAS (2 times)
GAIS (1 time)
NAS (1 time)
2011 A prospective, randomized, single-blinded controlled trial on biodegradable synthetic polyurethane foam as a packing material after septoplasty.
22  simulated physiological fluid
(4 times)
Biomimetics
(1 time)
MBG (2 times)
PLA (2 times)
AFM (1 time)
1994 In vitro dynamic solubility test: influence of various parameters.
23  single-photon fluorescence
(4 times)
Biophysics
(3 times)
TPF (3 times)
COO (1 time)
OEO (1 time)
2008 Autofluorescence of epithelial tissue: single-photon versus two-photon excitation.
24  social production function
(4 times)
Aging
(2 times)
QofL (1 time)
1997 Quality of life and social production functions: a framework for understanding health effects.
25  Soluble protein factor
(4 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
ATR (1 time)
DRIFTS (1 time)
FT-IR (1 time)
1980 Roles of phospholipid and detergent in soluble protein activation of squalene epoxidase.
26  Sorin Pericarbon Freedom
(4 times)
Cardiology
(3 times)
AVR (1 time)
PG (1 time)
2012 The Sorin freedom stentless pericardial valve: clinical and echocardiographic performance at 10 years.
27  soymilk pellet fraction
(4 times)
Natural Science Disciplines
(2 times)
SSF (3 times)
GDL (1 time)
HPLC (1 time)
2015 Coagulation of beta-conglycinin, glycinin and isoflavones induced by calcium chloride in soymilk.
28  spectrofluorimetry
(4 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(2 times)
CPE (3 times)
FAAS (2 times)
BMW (1 time)
1987 Spectrofluorometric determination of BAY Vp 2674 residues in poultry tissues.
29  Spherical Polar Fourier
(4 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(3 times)
EAP (3 times)
CS (1 time)
DW-MRI (1 time)
2009 3D-blast: 3D protein structure alignment, comparison, and classification using spherical polar Fourier correlations.
30  stamen-promoting factor
(4 times)
Genetics
(2 times)
asx (1 time)
GSF (1 time)
GyM (1 time)
1999 Sexual dimorphism in white campion: deletion on the Y chromosome results in a floral asexual phenotype.
31  standard preterm formula
(4 times)
Pediatrics
(4 times)
eHF (2 times)
AAF (1 time)
eHPF (1 time)
2012 Amino acid-based formula as a rescue strategy in feeding very-low-birth-weight infants with intrauterine growth restriction.
32  Strategic Prevention Framework
(4 times)
Psychology
(2 times)
CSAP (1 time)
EBPIs (1 time)
ISF (1 time)
2012 The interactive systems framework applied to the strategic prevention framework: the Rhode Island experience.
33  Strelley Pool Formation
(4 times)
Biology
(4 times)
EPT (1 time)
LREE (1 time)
NanoSIMS (1 time)
2010 Stromatolites in the approximately 3400 Ma Strelley Pool Formation, Western Australia: examining biogenicity from the macro- to the nano-scale.
34  subparafascicular nucleus
(4 times)
Brain
(2 times)
PHA-L (2 times)
CM (1 time)
MPL (1 time)
1983 Efferent connections of the subfascicular area of the mesodiencephalic junction and its possible involvement in stimulation-produced analgesia.
35  sugar palm fibre
(4 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
CB (1 time)
CS (1 time)
FT-IR (1 time)
2017 Thermal, mechanical, and physical properties of seaweed/sugar palm fibre reinforced thermoplastic sugar palm Starch/Agar hybrid composites.
36  S-phase promoting factor
(3 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
cdks (2 times)
MPF (1 time)
1993 Two potentially oncogenic cyclins, cyclin A and cyclin D1, share common properties of subunit configuration, tyrosine phosphorylation and physical association with the Rb protein.
37  Shortest Path First
(3 times)
Biosensing Techniques
(1 time)
DRs (1 time)
EC (1 time)
FLMPC-One (1 time)
2019 Exploiting Layered Multi-Path Routing Protocols to Avoid Void Hole Regions for Reliable Data Delivery and Efficient Energy Management for IoT-Enabled Underwater WSNs.
38  shortpass filter
(3 times)
Biophysics
(2 times)
CFs (1 time)
DOI (1 time)
dSiPM (1 time)
2017 Realization of 95% of the Rec. 2020 color gamut in a highly efficient LCD using a patterned quantum dot film.
39  single peritoneal flap
(3 times)
Female Urogenital Diseases
(2 times)
FSFI (3 times)
MRKH (3 times)
2015 Laparoscopic vaginoplasty using a single peritoneal flap: 10 years of experience in the creation of a neovagina in patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome.
40  slope of the upstream pressure-flow relationship
(3 times)
Psychophysiology
(3 times)
OSAS (2 times)
NC (1 time)
NEP (1 time)
2008 Puberty and upper airway dynamics during sleep.
41  solar photo-Fenton process
(3 times)
Environmental Health
(3 times)
AMI (1 time)
AOPs (1 time)
CPC (1 time)
2015 Photo-Fenton oxidation of 3-amino-5-methylisoxazole: a by-product from biological breakdown of some pharmaceutical compounds.
42  soy protein formula
(3 times)
Toxicology
(2 times)
CM (1 time)
CMA (1 time)
HF (1 time)
2000 Feeding high-risk infants with family history of allergy.
43  sparfloxacin
(3 times)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
AAS (2 times)
CdTe QDs (1 time)
cpl (1 time)
2007 Atomic absorption spectroscopic, conductometric and colorimetric methods for determination of some fluoroquinolone antibacterials using ammonium reineckate.
44  speaker's formant
(3 times)
Otolaryngology
(3 times)
BC (2 times)
LTAS (2 times)
Bi (1 time)
2005 The speaker's formant.
45  spectrophotofluorometry
(3 times)
Toxicology
(3 times)
SPP (1 time)
1967 Spectra and analyses of insecticide synergists and related compounds containing the methylenedioxyphenyl group by spectrophotofluorometry (SPF) and spectrophotophosphorimetry (SPP).
46  spiral phase filter
(3 times)
Ophthalmology
(3 times)
GPU (1 time)
PSF (1 time)
2009 Spiral phase filtering and orientation-selective edge detection/enhancement.
47  standard prognostic factors
(3 times)
Hematology
(2 times)
CA (2 times)
amp1q21 (1 time)
CR (1 time)
2003 MDS-type abnormalities within myeloma signature karyotype (MM-MDS): only 13% 1-year survival despite tandem transplants.
48  surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence
(3 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(2 times)
Cy5-SA (1 time)
GC-SPF (1 time)
GFP (1 time)
2011 Zinc oxide-coated plasmonic chip modified with a bispecific antibody for sensitive detection of a fluorescent labeled-antigen.
49  acid-stimulated parotid flow
(2 times)
Rheumatology
(1 time)
CODS (2 times)
SS (2 times)
SWS (2 times)
2018 Sialendoscopy enhances salivary gland function in Sjogren's syndrome: a 6-month follow-up, randomised and controlled, single blind study.
50  S-phase of the cell cycle
(2 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
ER (1 time)
1990 Flow cytometry in primary breast cancer: improving the prognostic value of the fraction of cells in the S-phase by optimal categorisation of cut-off levels.
51  salmon peptide fraction
(2 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(2 times)
MetS (2 times)
FO (1 time)
HFS (1 time)
2015 Low-Molecular-Weight Peptides from Salmon Protein Prevent Obesity-Linked Glucose Intolerance, Inflammation, and Dyslipidemia in LDLR-/-/ApoB100/100 Mice.
52  satisfaction with physical function
(2 times)
Public Health
(1 time)
GMCB (1 time)
PT (1 time)
SE (1 time)
2008 Enhancing quality of life in older adults: a comparison of muscular strength and power training.
53  Scale of Protective Factors
(2 times)
Psychology
(1 time)
CD-RISC (1 time)
CD-RISC-10 (1 time)
CD-RISC-25 (1 time)
2016 Data replicating the factor structure and reliability of commonly used measures of resilience: The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Resilience Scale, and Scale of Protective Factors.
54  secondary phase fraction
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
PCA (1 time)
PCs (1 time)
RDA (1 time)
2011 Fraction distribution and bioavailability of soil heavy metals in the Yangtze River Delta--a case study of Kunshan City in Jiangsu Province, China.
55  sedentary pair-fed
(2 times)
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
(1 time)
EC (2 times)
EPF (2 times)
ET (2 times)
2011 Hypothalamic inflammation is reversed by endurance training in anorectic-cachectic rats.
56  Serum protein fraction
(2 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
CI (1 time)
EHA (1 time)
HPLC (1 time)
2017 In vitro anthelmintic effects of Spigelia anthelmia protein fractions against Haemonchus contortus.
57  sham-operated pair-fed with Nx
(2 times)
Transplantation
(1 time)
SAL (2 times)
CRF (1 time)
ECM (1 time)
2001 Collagen metabolism is markedly altered in the hypertrophic cartilage of growth plates from rats with growth impairment secondary to chronic renal failure.
58  signed pressure force function
(2 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(1 time)
MRI (1 time)
ROI (1 time)
2013 Level set method with automatic selective local statistics for brain tumor segmentation in MR images.
59  silk protein fibroin
(2 times)
AMPK (2 times)
STAMP2 (2 times)
T2DM (2 times)
2019 Dietary Exposure to Transgenic Rice Expressing the Spider Silk Protein Fibroin Reduces Blood Glucose Levels in Diabetic Mice: The Potential Role of Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 Phosphorylation in Adipocytes.
60  simplified perfusion fraction
(2 times)
Nervous System Diseases
(1 time)
DWI (2 times)
AMI (1 time)
AUC (1 time)
2018 Application of a Simplified Method for Estimating Perfusion Derived from Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging in Glioma Grading.
61  single polarization fiber
(2 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(1 time)
HER2 (1 time)
TFBGs (1 time)
2006 Wavelength tunable stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber erbium ring laser with single polarization fiber.
62  slate processing fines
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
GMC (1 time)
2005 Initial tree establishment on blocky quarry waste ameliorated with hydrogel or slate processing fines.
63  slow programmable freezing
(2 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(1 time)
RF (1 time)
2009 Rapid freezing versus slow programmable freezing of human spermatozoa.
64  Smart Peak Flow
(2 times)
PEF (2 times)
LOA (1 time)
2020 Promising peak flow diary compliance with an electronic peak flow meter and linked smartphone app.
65  South Asian Pigmentary Forum
(2 times)
Dermatology
(2 times)
PDS (2 times)
2017 Medical Management of Melasma: A Review with Consensus Recommendations by Indian Pigmentary Expert Group.
66  specific permeate flux
(2 times)
Toxicology
(2 times)
CIP (1 time)
GAC (1 time)
MF (1 time)
2006 Permeate flux optimisation of a pilot microfiltration plant for cost-effectiveness of water reclamation for reuse.
67  specific-pathogen-free pigs
(2 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(2 times)
ET (1 time)
SW (1 time)
1981 [Bacteriological diagnosis of Haemophilus pleuropneumonia in swine].
68  specificity
(2 times)
Neurology
(1 time)
SEN (2 times)
ACC (1 time)
AUC (1 time)
2018 Seizure forecasting using single robust linear feature as correlation vector of seizure-like events in brain slices preparation in vitro.
69  Spinous process fixation
(2 times)
Surgical Instruments
(2 times)
BL (1 time)
EBL (1 time)
IB (1 time)
2013 Outcomes and complications following spinous process fixation: a single-center analysis of 192 cases.
70  spinous process fracture
(2 times)
Orthopedics
(1 time)
DE (1 time)
DM (1 time)
DSC (1 time)
2016 Osteoporotic thoracolumbar junctional fracture accompanied by spinous process fracture without posterior ligament injury: its clinical and radiologic significances.
71  standard polymeric formula
(2 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(2 times)
EN (1 time)
HEN (1 time)
PBD (1 time)
2019 Clinical Effects of a Pectin-Containing Oligomeric Formula in Tube Feeding Patients: A Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial.
72  steam-processed, flaked
(2 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(2 times)
BP (2 times)
OM (2 times)
CP (1 time)
1987 Site of protein digestion in steers fed sorghum grain diets. I. Effect of level of feed intake.
73  structure-property-function
(2 times)
Chemistry
(1 time)
ENMs (2 times)
SPH (2 times)
n-CuO (1 time)
2015 Designing nanomaterials to maximize performance and minimize undesirable implications guided by the Principles of Green Chemistry.
74  subcapsular proliferative foci
(2 times)
Biological Science Disciplines
(1 time)
MBC (1 time)
SCS (1 time)
2018 Memory B cells are reactivated in subcapsular proliferative foci of lymph nodes.
75  superficial pectoral fascia
(2 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
BAA (1 time)
ET (1 time)
IL (1 time)
2005 Anatomy of pectoral fascia in relation to subfascial mammary augmentation.
76  superplastic forming
(2 times)
Dentistry
(2 times)
--- 2001 Measurement of the setting and thermal expansion of dental investments used for the superplastic forming of dental implant superstructures.
77  swine production facilities
(2 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
COPD (1 time)
MCh (1 time)
PCLS (1 time)
2019 Profiling of cell stress proteins reveals decreased expression of enzymatic antioxidants in tracheal epithelial tissue of pigs raised indoors.
78  systemic pulmonary fistulae
(2 times)
Pediatrics
(1 time)
HR (1 time)
1987 [Systemic-pulmonary fistula. Percentage of children attaining corrective surgery].
79  LivaNova-Sorin Pericarbon Freedom
(1 time)
Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures
(1 time)
ABE (1 time)
CEP (1 time)
MACCE (1 time)
2020 Stentless Pericarbon Freedom Versus Stented Perimount Aortic Bioprosthesis: Propensity-Matched Long-Term Follow-Up.
80  models-specific pathogen-free mice
(1 time)
Genetics
(1 time)
GF (1 time)
GO (1 time)
IFN (1 time)
2012 A microarray analysis of gnotobiotic mice indicating that microbial exposure during the neonatal period plays an essential role in immune system development.
81  o-sulfophenylfluorone
(1 time)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(1 time)
HSA (1 time)
PR method (1 time)
2005 Spectrophotometric determination of urinary protein with o-sulfophenylfluorone-metal complex.
82  S-phase fraction of the primary tumour
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
--- 1996 Growth rate of lung metastases and S-phase fraction as determined by flow cytometry from the primary tumour in 25 patients with bone or soft-tissue sarcomas.
83  S. platensis filtrates
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
NO (1 time)
ROS (1 time)
SP (1 time)
2017 The Influence of Spirulina platensis Filtrates on Caco-2 Proliferative Activity and Expression of Apoptosis-Related microRNAs and mRNA.
84  saline and pair-fed with COC
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
BPD (1 time)
COC (1 time)
SAL (1 time)
2002 Developmental toxicity of cocaine exposure in mid-pregnancy mice.
85  saline vehicle and pair-fed with the COC dams
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
--- 1998 Transplacental cocaine exposure. 1: A rodent model.
86  Salpingopharyngeal Fold
(1 time)
Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases
(1 time)
AHI (1 time)
DISE (1 time)
2019 A Novel Grading System for Salpingopharyngeal Fold Hypertrophy in Obstructive Sleep Apnoea.
87  salt-processed Psoraleae Fructus
(1 time)
Natural Science Disciplines
(1 time)
PF (1 time)
2019 Quantitative analysis, pharmacokinetics and metabolomics study for the comprehensive characterization of the salt-processing mechanism of Psoraleae Fructus.
88  salty processed food
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
HF (1 time)
NCDs (1 time)
2021 Distribution of Dietary Risk Factors in Iran: National and Sub-National Burden of Disease.
89  Samn-Perelli Fatigue
(1 time)
Occupational Medicine
(1 time)
ESS (1 time)
ICU (1 time)
IQR (1 time)
2020 ICU shift related effects on sleep, fatigue and alertness levels.
90  sample presentation frequency
(1 time)
Behavioral Sciences
(1 time)
--- 1999 Sample frequency and sample duration as sources of stimulus control in delayed matching to sample.
91  sandwich of perichondrium and fascia
(1 time)
General Surgery
(1 time)
SPLF (1 time)
2020 The SPF-SPLF Graft: Building the Ideal Dorsum in Revision Rhinoplasty.
92  Sante publique France
(1 time)
Communicable Diseases
(1 time)
e-SIN (1 time)
HA (1 time)
ILI (1 time)
2017 Outbreaks of health care-associated influenza-like illness in France: Impact of electronic notification.
93  saponin-rich fraction
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
ALF (1 time)
CEAE (1 time)
HFD (1 time)
2018 Impact of Colocasia esculenta extract and fractions on high-fat diet-induced changes in body weight, adipose tissue and liver of rats.
94  Saprophytic fungi
(1 time)
Fungi
(1 time)
CAZymes (1 time)
2021 Genomic and Experimental Investigations of Auriscalpium and Strobilurus Fungi Reveal New Insights into Pinecone Decomposition.
95  satisfaction with their physical functioning
(1 time)
Public Health
(1 time)
COPD (1 time)
2004 Perceived difficulty, importance, and satisfaction with physical function in COPD patients.
96  scattering phase function
(1 time)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
EM (1 time)
2015 Scattering phase function of a charged spherical particle.
97  Schistosome Paralysis Factor
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
--- 2019 A rotifer-derived paralytic compound prevents transmission of schistosomiasis to a mammalian host.
98  schizotypal personality features
(1 time)
Psychiatry
(1 time)
CPT (1 time)
SOA (1 time)
WCST (1 time)
2006 Comparison of three computer-administered cognitive tasks as putative endophenotypes of schizophrenia.
99  SDS-PAGE, spectrofluorometry
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
CZE (1 time)
EGFP (1 time)
TC (1 time)
2010 Detection of Escherichia coli enoyl-ACP reductase using biarsenical-tetracysteine motif.
100  sectored plaque frequency
(1 time)
Genetics
(1 time)
CYP1A (1 time)
MF (1 time)
1997 Mutant frequency of lacI in transgenic mice following benzo[a]pyrene treatment and partial hepatectomy.